“No Leaf Unturned, Revisited and Revised”:
Further Evidence as to the Ancestry of
Rachel Allred (1773-1856),
Wife of Joseph Allred (1772-1856)
of Randolph County, North Carolina

By Larry Cates August 2018

Rachel's Lineage:  Rachel, James, Thomas, Solomon born 1680 England
Joseph's Lineage:  Joseph, John, unknown daughter and Samuel Finley, Solomon born 1680 England

It is certainly the case that, at any given moment in time, we can never hope to have all the evidence to hand that would help to clarify a genealogical question. No one can be blamed for doing the best he/she can with what is available. The Genealogical Proof Standard encourages a reasonably exhaustive search before drawing up and disseminating our conclusions. But, actually, it is not always possible to know where to look or how to judge what is relevant without time and perspective. Sometimes, accumulated accretions of interpretation drafted and canonized by others contain numerous errors which tend to cloud judgment. But as the years pass, invariably, unlooked-for sources come to light that help us clarify our thinking. Holes appear in interpretations of long standing. New tools arise that could scarcely have been imagined when a given question first emerged. Such is the case with an article that I wrote almost sixteen years ago entitled “‘No Leaf Unturned’: Clues to the Identity of an Allred Bride.”   It was published in the Fall 2002 edition of the Journal of the Randolph County Genealogical Society, and then subsequently republished on the website and in the newsletter of the Allred Family Organization. The time has come to reassess the conclusions reached in that article, and in the process, to reveal details on a family scarcely documented in the work of previous researchers. It is also time to expose some errors in interpretation which have heretofore hampered progress on this particular Allred family and one or two others.

  1. Recapping the Earlier Argument.

Rachel Allred (1773-1856) was the wife of Joseph Allred, one of the more prosperous members of the Randolph County, North Carolina clan, who lived in the northeast section of the county and is buried at Patterson Grove Christian Church. The family owned a dozen or so slaves and dabbled in land speculation and goldmining activities. A few private papers survive at Duke University and do much to illuminate their lives and attitudes. Rachel was apparently highly revered by her offspring, who commemorated her in the naming of several grandchildren. In my original piece,[1] I argued that Rachel Allred’s parentage, as identified in Rulon C. Allred’s book The Allred Family in America, was misplaced. He had claimed that she was identical to the daughter “Rachel Brown” mentioned by Thomas Allred in his 1809 will recorded in Randolph County. This would mean that Joseph Allred, who was already married when Thomas Allred died, and had seen the births of all but four of his eleven known children, could not have been married to Thomas’s daughter Rachel on 8 Nov 1809 when the will was written.[2] Furthermore, there is strong evidence that Rachel Brown and her children were living in Franklin County, Georgia as late as 1805.[3] The idea that she came back to North Carolina and became the second wife of Joseph Allred seems a bit far-fetched. Once an idea appears in print, however, it is often difficult to dispel. There are those who continue to cling to Rulon Allred’s conclusions in a literal manner, in spite of all the evidence against them.[4] There are no discernable gaps in the succession of children born to Rachel and Joseph Allred from 1795 to 1816.[5] The older children used Rachel’s name when their own children were born. Also, the census descriptions of Joseph’s wife from year to year (excepting 1820, which is missing for Randolph County), though only assigning her an age category not a specific age, are compatible though not absolutely consistent. There remains no particular reason to think there was more than one wife. Rulon Allred seems to have been working from the assumption that Joseph Allred and his wife were cousins. I do not know what the source of that belief was. I suspect that there was some family tradition to that effect, but he does not reveal what evidence impelled him to make that claim. I believe that he was correct, in fact, because of the numerous issues with health among children and grandchildren of the couple, which I cite in detail in the original article. A web commentator on my conclusions, in fact, accepted the unusual number of health problems among Joseph’s descendants: *a daughter who committed suicide, another who is described as "afflicted" in a personal letter, *children and grandchildren who married late or not at all, *a photograph of Jonathan Allred which reveals a particularly unhealthy aspect),  but claimed that there must have been an unrelated first wife in the mix, because none of the older children had offspring with these health issues. In fact, in my original article, I explicitly cite the fact that John Allred, the oldest son, had a daughter, Mary Ann, who is identified as insane in an early census record. In addition, the obituary of this same John's daughter, Elizabeth D. Allred, who died in 1859 aged twenty-four, speaks explicitly of her afflictions.[6] Mary Allred Chisholm had a daughter Rachel who died in 1858 unmarried at age twenty-six. The claim that there was no aberrant behavior or health complication among the older children because Joseph had two wives, the first unrelated to him and the second related, is unsupported by the evidence.  (  This photograph of Jonathan Allred shows him at some time prior to his death aged no more than 60.) If Rachel Allred was related to her husband, however, but not the daughter of Thomas Allred (d. c. 1810), who in fact, was her father? In the first article, I put forward a proposal that she was somehow connected to the family of Solomon Allred (d. 1782), uncle[7] of Joseph’s father John. This Solomon's ill-documented family resided in the northwestern portion of Richmond County, North Carolina from the mid-1770s until the first decade of the nineteenth century. I suggested that she might be his daughter or granddaughter, but did not attempt to say precisely how. After all, didn’t Joseph’s son John Allred resettle in that precise part of Richmond County in the 1810's or 1820's, very close to the lands of Solomon’s sons? In addition, two others among Joseph’s children, married in nearby Montgomery County, North Carolina, far from their place of birth in Randolph. What clinched the idea for me was the discovery of a letter in the Joseph Allred Papers at Duke University from Martin Williams of Richmond County, NC, apparently to James Allred, son of Joseph and Rachel. The letter’s partially destroyed greeting seemed to read “Co[usin Ja]mes,” thus addressing James Allred as Martin’s cousin. I found out that Martin Williams was the son of Stephen (4 May 1774-1 Jun 1830) and Delilah Williams of that same area of Richmond County. In the letter, Martin refers to the death of his brother-in-law Dr. John McLeod (d. 1848; second wife was Ann T. Williams), whose daughter by a first wife Martin would soon marry. Since Martin could not have been the son of one of Joseph Allred’s sisters, it follows that he must have been related through Rachel Allred. Stephen Williams had, in fact, purchased the land that Jonathan Allred, son of Solomon, owned before Jonathan moved to Barnwell District, South Carolina.[8] Both Stephen Williams and Joseph Allred had a brace of daughters named Rachel and Delilah. It seemed likely to me that Delilah was the sister of Rachel Allred, wife of Joseph. I reached this conclusion in spite of widespread claims on the Internet that Delilah Williams was the daughter of Caleb Touchstone, a long-time resident of this border area between Richmond and Montgomery counties. To my knowledge, there is no primary evidence whatsoever to support that claim. At the same time, the author of the most recent and authoritative Allred family history to date has alleged that Robert Allison (wife Jane Moore) was the father of Rachel Allred.[9] No evidence is given within that volume to support this claim. It would appear that a long-standing assumption that Rachel Allred, wife of Francis Allred of Overton Co., TN, was an Allison by birth has somehow affected the identification of Joseph Allred’s wife, but on what grounds, I cannot say.

  1. A New Perspective

            In recent months, I have discovered additional details concerning an Allred family resident in southwestern Montgomery County, North Carolina and neighboring parts of Richmond which has hitherto been grossly overlooked and which may provide the answer to the conundrum of the origins of both Rachel Allred and her assumed sister, Delilah Williams. When it comes down to it, in the final analysis, I cannot absolutely prove the relationships I propose below. But I will assert that they are firmly grounded in the evidence we have and merit serious consideration. My argument also challenges some previous assumptions about other Allred families which will now need to be reexamined and re-evaluated.             Probably, the most exciting discovery I have made is the obituary of Delilah Williams, widow of Stephen, who accompanied her children from Richmond County, NC, to Ouachita and Jackson parishes, Louisiana, in the 1850s. It was published in the 19 Dec 1861 edition of The Nashville Christian Advocate. In it, Delilah Williams is described as the widow of Stephen Williams. The obituary states that she was born in Randolph County, North Carolina 2 January 1780 and died 9 Nov 1861. She survived her husband by thirty-one years, five months and nine days, had seven sons and four daughters, all except the eldest son surviving her. She joined the Methodist Episcopal Church in Richmond County in 1825. The explicit identification of Delilah Williams’s birthplace is monumental. It undergirds the evidence of the letter from Martin Williams to James Allred and makes it extremely plausible that Rachel, James Allred’s mother, and Delilah, Martin Williams’s mother, were sisters. So if their father was an Allred, who was he?             It helped me to think about a timeline in this situation. Very simply, Rachel Allred was married in Randolph County, one would assume, in the early to mid-1790s. Her oldest son John was born about 1795. There is no evidence that she ever lived elsewhere. Her alleged sister Delilah would have married Stephen Williams, who always lived in Montgomery or Richmond County, shortly after 1800, because her oldest child Henry was born about 1804. A plausible idea is that their father was resident in Randolph County until at least the mid-1790s, but then moved into the vicinity of Stephen Williams, allowing Delilah to meet and marry him there by 1802 or 1803 at the latest. Was there any Allred man who fit that bill? As it turned out, there actually was a perfect fit, and I found him by trying to discover more evidence of Solomon Allred’s family in Richmond County, documenting every relevant land record.             On 11 April 1801, James Allred sold to Jabez York, his 116 acres in Randolph County on Mt. Pleasant Creek.[10] Per the 1799 tax list of Randolph County, this was all the land James claimed.[11] The deed specifies that it was part of a tract that James had acquired from Thomas Allred, who in turn had purchased from John Allred, the original recipient of a 1756 Granville grant. It was witnessed by Jeremiah York. Less than one month later, on 19 May 1801, Moses Grantham of Richmond County sold James Allred "of Randolph County" 215 acres, part of 275 acres between Great Pee Dee and Great Buffalo Creek of Little River adjacent William Pelham, John McHenry, and McPherson. It was a tract originally granted Ezra Bostick by the King (1770). The deed was witnessed by Thomas Bostick and James Bostick.[12] Just three years later, on 10 Dec 1804, James Allred sold 137 acres of this tract, said to be adjacent William Pelham, John Ussery, and Chunn McPherson, to James Bostick. At that time, James Allred was residing in Montgomery County, NC.[13] Although the records of Montgomery County were decimated in several, successive courthouse fires up to 1843, we know that a James Allred continued to live there as late as 1810. On 24 Jul 1805, James Allred and Phillip Mask were chain bearers on a survey of Phillip Mask for 350 acres on the west side of Little River and the waters of Little Town Creek. In Nov 1810, James Auldred and John Christian were chain carriers on a ten-acre survey for John Christian adjacent Sarah Sexton and Alexander McCarter in Montgomery County.[14] These state land grants survived the fires because they were housed in Raleigh. So clearly, a James Allred removed from Randolph County to Richmond County, NC, eventually living in Montgomery County, but continued to own land on both sides of the line. His death would have been masked by the destruction of probate records in Montgomery County, but some evidence remains of likely children – children who don’t seem to belong to the Solomon Allred clan directly which had cleared out of this region almost entirely by 1810.             But which of the several James Allreds is this? Well, as the deeds show, he is certainly the same person who obtained land from Thomas and Elizabeth Allred 1 Sep 1788, 116 acres in Randolph County on Mt. Pleasant Creek.[15] Likewise, he is the one who appears in the 1790 census of Randolph, with one male over 16, one male under 16, and eight females. In Jun 1789, he was first exempted from paying his poll tax, and in June of 1790, his exempt status was made permanent. The 1800 census shows him with two males under 10, one male 10 to 16, one male over 45, one female under 10, three females 10 to 16, three females 16 to 26, and one female over 45 (p. 300). The 1799 tax list of Randolph only shows one other male over the age of 16 and that is James Allred, son of John, who had no land to his credit.[16] To be Delilah and Rachel’s father, both of whom named sons James, by the way, it seems plausible that he would have been born prior to 1755 as the 1800 census alleges. In fact, he has to be the same James who along with brothers Elias and William Allred, was listed in the muster roll of Capt. John Hinds’s militia unit in Randolph County,[17] and the one who appears in the 1779 tax list with 15 acres of 30 total improved, 5 cattle and 3 horses (Capt. Joseph Hinds’s district).[18] He is also likely the James Allred to whom a 1778 land grant for 300 acres was originally issued on Solomon’s Branch. In 1786, he sold that improvement to John Allred, son of Thomas, and served as chain bearer on his brother’s grant. In 1796, he signed away another 68-acre warrant (otherwise noted as 50 acres) to Eli Allred, who in turn assigned it to Isaac Lane. Joseph Allred, by the way, ended up being a chain bearer on this survey.[19] The two signatures on these assignments ten years apart are consistent with one another. It is extremely likely that he is the son of Thomas Allred (who died 1810 Randolph County, NC). After all, he purchased his land from them, he had land interactions with his brothers John and Eli. And furthermore, comparing his signature a third time with one he signed with his father and brother John for the appearance of Eli Allred to answer charges of horse stealing at Hillsborough District Superior Court, in 1797, the consistency is again apparent.[20] I will also point out that Joseph Allred, husband of Rachel, served as a chain bearer on a 100-acre grant to a Thomas Allred, adjacent James Allred and John Jones, which was surveyed 20 Aug 1801.[21] He then witnessed the will of Thomas Allred, Sr. written in 1809. Thomas, in my estimation, would have been his wife’s paternal grandfather. She was likely named for her aunt Rachel Allred Brown. Joseph Allred also witnessed the will of John Jones (1822) who married Elizabeth Allred, daughter of Thomas Allred, his wife's aunt in my estimation. Both Joseph and Rachel Allred, along with Eli Allred, were present at the estate sale of Elizabeth (Allred) Jones in 1833. By my calculation, Rachel would have been a niece to both Elizabeth Jones and Eli Allred.[22] Finally, in a case in which Aaron York (a relative of Thomas York) was accused of stealing leather from Hezekiah Clarke in August of 1834, the witnesses summoned included two Allred couples: Joseph and Rachel Allred and Eli and Susannah Allred. Kingsberry Allred was also a witness.[23] It is interesting that both Rachel and her alleged uncle and aunt, Eli and Susannah Allred, were involved in this situation. So, in the end, it would seem that Rulon Allred was more correct than I had originally thought. It was not Thomas Allred’s daughter, but more than likely his granddaughter by an elder son, who married Joseph Allred! III. The Other Jameses      

There still remain some troubling questions to resolve. Over the years, other people have tried to define James, son of Thomas, in different ways. No one assumed that he went to Richmond and Montgomery counties and died there. No one that I know of ever addressed the deeds that reveal this migration. And there are other Jameses in early Randolph County who confuse the matter somewhat. These alternative individuals need more explanation. I believe the first of them was a nephew of the James I’ve just defined and probably named for him.            

First, we know per the 1799 tax list of Randolph County that a John Allred resident in Randolph had a son named James who was of age in that year.[24] This James is almost certainly the one referenced in a criminal action from Nov 1797 in which Jane Allred, wife of James, an unmarried woman named Miriam Allred, and Martha Curtis, wife of John, were accused of assaulting Mary Crabtree at Sandy Creek Meetinghouse. Interestingly, John Allred posted security for the appearance of his daughter Miriam in court after this incident, suggesting perhaps that Miriam was this James Allred’s sister.[25] This is almost certainly the same James Allred who appears in the 1800 Census of Randolph County, aged 16 to 26 years of age. His only child is a son under 10 years old. His wife falls into the same 16 to 26 age category. "James Allred of John" appears again in the 1803 tax list of Randolph County with 294 acres.[26] In 1801, he was granted 22 acres on Solomon’s Branch adjacent Thomas Allred, John Allred, and Isaac Lane. Christian Spoon and John Allred were his chain bearers. He served as chain bearer, along with Levi Allred, on two separate surveys for John Jones (who married his aunt Elizabeth Allred) in 1802 and 1806.[27] But he quickly moved away to Guilford County. There, he shows up in the 1810 census of Guilford (p. 923) with 1 male under 10, 1 male 10 to 16, 1 male 26 to 45, 3 females under 10, 1 female 26 to 45. In 1830, he was still in Guilford County (p. 122) aged 50 to 60. His wife was 40 to 50. He had one male 5 to 10 years of age, 1 male 10 to 15 years old and 1 male 15 to 20, along with 1 younger female aged 10 to 15. In 1811, this James Allred sold his 21 acres on Solomon’s Branch to Isaac Hobson of Chatham County for $50.[28] In 1817, this time as "James Allred of Guilford County, North Carolina," he sold 75 acres on Solomon’s Branch adjacent Lewis and George Wright to John Harper.[29] He had purchased this tract in 1815 from Levi Allred (b. 1770/1780).[30] To solidify this identification further, I appeal to a deed in Guilford County dated 3 Mar 1813 from Zebulon Causey to Enoch Davis for land on the Brushy Fork of Alamance Creek, which was witnessed by both James Allred and Jane Allred, the same wife identified in the 1798 Randolph County criminal action.[31] In Feb 1813, James Allred was appointed constable in Guilford with Joseph Phipps, John Hardin, and Levi Tucker, his securities.[32] In Feb 1826, Jesse Hinshaw was appointed overseer of the road from Absalom Fields’s Creek to Jarrell’s Branch in the room of Gideon Alexander. James Allred was assigned to work this stretch of road.[33] This James was almost certainly the son of John, who was the son of Thomas, Sr. and the nephew of James, Sr.[34]            

A second James Allred to reckon with appears in the 1810 census of Randolph County. He and his wife are both over 45 years of age and there is only one young man in the household aged 10 to 16. It is unclear who this James is, but it is possible he is the same as the James who moved to Montgomery and then returned to spend his later years in his home county. If so, there is no evidence he acquired additional land in Randolph. Perhaps he decided to take up residence on the land of a son-in-law. But, in any case, he does not appear in the subsequent 1820 tax list or elsewhere to my knowledge. He, indeed, may have been a different person altogether.            

A third James Allred was referenced in a letter from Solomon Allred of Blount Co., AL, to his cousins John and Isaac Key(s), 19 Apr 1847. This Solomon Allred died in Sept. 1849 (per the 1850 mortality schedule) and it is very likely that he was the grandson of Solomon Allred (c. 1778 – aft. 1860, Carroll Co., AR) who was then residing in Anderson County, TN.  The mortality schedule reveals that he was born about 1810 in Tennessee.

I must address the James of his letter because he has frequently been identified as the son of Thomas (d. 1810) and Elizabeth Allred.[35] “I will inform you that old Uncle Thomas Allred’s son, James, is dead and we cannot account for his death unless he took a fit and fell on the end of a log that lay near him and I suppose that he went out and staid so long that his wife became so uneasy that she went out to hunt for him and I suppose that she found him lying on his breast dead.” Even on the face of it, the claim that the James referenced in this letter was the son of Thomas Allred (d. c. 1810) of Randolph County is questionable. Per the 1800 census, we know that Thomas, Sr.’s son James was born before 1755. In the year 1847, he would have been at least ninety-two years old and probably much older. No one would have been surprised to discover that a man of his age had fallen dead. Furthermore, no intervening census records show his presence after 1810 at the latest. It stands to reason that the “old uncle Thomas” that Solomon Allred is referring to is actually someone who had children living locally in and around Blount County. And if you look at the 1850 census of Blount County, there is indeed an old Thomas living on the very same page as Nancy, the widow of the letter writer, Solomon Allred (Jr.) who had died the previous fall. This is the very same Thomas Allred (2 Apr 1771-28 Apr 1858) who later moved back to Knox Co., Tennessee, probably to live with his daughter Sylvania Allred Wood (1839-1885).[36] Some others of his descendants were doubtless living in Blount Co. in 1850. He was living there with Elizabeth Gunter, perhaps his daughter. He is buried with a contemporary tombstone at Glenwood Cemetery near Powell, TN.  It seems very likely that the letter of Solomon Allred refers to a son of this Thomas Allred named James who lived somewhere near Blount County.

In fact, it may very well be the James Alred who married Eliza Watts 12 Sep 1833 in neighboring Jefferson County. This particular Thomas, presumably, was the brother of Solomon Allred, Sr. back in Anderson Co., TN. Clearly, they were of an age. In the same collection were letters from Isaac Allred of Greene County, MO, directed to Solomon Allred of Anderson Co., TN (addressing him as father) and from Isaac’s son William C. Allred to the Keys (addressing them as cousins). They are dated 1849 and 1850 respectively. Isaac was definitely the son, then, of the senior Solomon living in Anderson Co., TN at the time. His statements suggest something about where the elder Solomon in Anderson Co. fits into the larger Allred family. Speaking to his father, he says he currently has a clock repairman at his home named Jesse L. Allred from Indiana. Jesse, he states, is the youngest son of Elias Allred, Sr. from Randolph Co., NC. Jesse’s grandfather was Thomas Allred, “your uncle.”[37] So that statement implies that the senior Solomon in Anderson County was not of the Thomas branch of the greater Allred clan at all. He must either come from the Solomon Allred branch, the William Allred branch, or the John Allred branch of the family--more than likely the Solomon branch. Likewise, Thomas Allred's son James who died in Blount Co. unexpectedly most likely fits into the Solomon Branch, not the Thomas Branch.[38]

IV.      Descendants of James Allred (b. bef. 1755 – aft. 1810, Montgomery or Randolph Co., NC?)

            So if James Allred of Thomas the Elder is not to be equated with the Blount County, AL reference, his children must be sought in the place to which he actually relocated after selling his land on Mt. Pleasant Creek in Randolph. The 1790 and 1800 censuses suggest that he had many daughters, likely eight in all, and at least three sons. James's wife’s name is unknown, but it is very possible that she is the 70 to 80 year old woman living with presumed son John in the 1830 census of Montgomery Co., NC. Some of the daughters, like Rachel, may have married prior to his departure from Randolph County. A few additional ones, like Delilah, may have married in his new location.

Not everyone in the family, particularly the daughters, can be identified in the absence of probate records, but happily, James’s presence in the region long after the Solomon Allred family departed, explains the appearance of other Allreds in the Richmond/Montgomery county borderlands – most of whom have rarely if ever been acknowledged by previous researchers. In fact, in my earlier effort, I mistook some of them as belonging to the family of his probable grandson John Allred (1795-1891; wife Amelia Armstrong), in particular Martin J. Allred. It turns out that John Allred, son of Joseph and Rachel Allred, did not have a will or estate file. He deeded his land to his unmarried daughter Rachel J. Allred, probably for caring for himself and his wife in their declining years. Rachel, in turn, gave this land to her sister Martha Little Allred Chappell.[39] So there is no master list of his heirs.[40] A careful look at all of John’s census records clarifies that he only had one son, born in the early 1820s. That individual was definitely Isaac Allred (1821-1879; m. Eliza Jane Bostick). Isaac was named after his maternal grandfather, Isaac Armstrong, and he wrote letters from Richmond County to his uncle James Allred in Randolph which survive in the Joseph Allred Papers at Duke University. Martin belongs elsewhere.            

Here follow records that I have accumulated on these families. The absence of early Montgomery County documentation means proofs are spotty and a lot of cross referencing is necessary. But note that there are interlocking connections among the persons posited as children and grandchildren here. They were clearly associated with one another. Joseph and Rachel Allred are linked to them by the letter from Martin Williams to James Allred (of Joseph) and by the removal of Joseph’s son John to this same border region where the individuals below resided. Some were intimately associated with him, for they were his maternal relations. And the connection was indeed through Thomas Allred, Sr., just as Rulon Allred claimed so many years ago, but not in the exact manner that he thought.            

One final comment is in order. I propose more sons here than are evidenced in the 1790 and 1800 census entries for James Allred, Sr. in Randolph County. I do so entirely on the basis of associations later in life which are explained below. The network of families clustering along the southwest border of Ohio in Preble, Butler, and Darke counties and in neighboring Wayne County, Indiana are clearly linked to this group through their long-distance association with Elizabeth Allred Armstrong, who was almost certainly the youngest daughter in the family. (See her description below for further particulars.) One Midwestern candidate, James Allred (who married in Richmond Co., NC), was born in 1784, so it may have been he who was in the James Sr. household at 10 to 16 years of age in 1800. William and John (later of Montgomery Co., NC) show some ambiguity in the ages assigned them between 1830 and 1840, but John was clearly the oldest and may have been on his own as early as 1790. William Allred, his brother, who seems to have been born in the 1780s may have been living with him in Anson County in 1800. Not all of the sons may have been living with James, Sr. in 1790. William may have been out of the house and some of the others may have been living with extended family members at that time or working on nearby farms. Their grandfather, Thomas Allred had a young man under 16 in his household in 1790. John Jones (husband of Elizabeth Allred) likewise had a young man of this age in his household. Jones does not seem to have had any children of his own. All were neighbors in the Mount Pleasant and Solomon's Creek community. However, it is possible that some of these individuals were not children of James Allred, Sr. at all, but other near relations. The ones I feel least certain of are prefaced by a question mark.

  • Rachel Allred (c. 1773-3 Mar 1856) m. Joseph Allred (15 Sep 1772—27 Feb 1856) of Randolph Co., NC. Children: John Allred (1795-1890, Richmond Co., NC) m. Amelia Armstrong; Mary Allred (1797-1858) m. Daniel Chisholm; Martha Allred (1799-1881) m. James Patterson; Delilah Allred (b. c. 1801) m. Stephen Phillips; Balaam Allred (1803-1857); Peggy Allred (1806-30 Nov 1830); Anna Allred (b. c. 1808) m. Lewis Hayes; James Allred (b. c. 1810 d. aft. 1882); Jonathan Allred (1812-1872) m. Nancy Allen; Rachel Allred (c. 1814-1885) m. Riley Miller; Elvina Allred (c. 1816-c. 1845).

  • John Allred (b. 1770/1780?—d. 1840/50, Montgomery Co., NC) Jane or Jeanette ---- (b. c. 1810—d. aft 1880, Ocala, Marion Co., FL). John Allred and his brother William Allred were in the Pee Dee section quite early. In fact, they may even have preceded their father there by a few years. However, it is not so straightforward a task to separate them from the family of Solomon Allred (d. 1782). Solomon may indeed have had a son named John and one named William.[41] There are very early references to them in Anson County and Richmond County records, but they seem to have moved west at an early date. It seems likely, after all, that Solomon Sr.’s son of that name would have headed a household by 1787/1788, but he does not appear in the state census of Richmond County in that year. In any case, he would have been significantly older than any of the men discussed below.  In the 1800 census, a John Aldred appears in the census of Anson County, aged 26 to 45 with a male 10 to 15 years old (possibly brother William), a female under 10 (oldest child) and a female 16 to 26 years old (first wife). There are no land transactions for this individual in Anson County, and I believe he may have come back to Richmond County to join his father in 1801. It may have been this John and his brother William Allred who acted as chain bearers for their presumed brother-in-law Stephen Williams’s grant for 100 acres adjoining Stephen Touchstone on Mountain Creek, 19 Oct 1803.[42] By that time, James Allred was also present in the region. Jane Allred, who may have been the second wife of John Allred, was among those called to give testimony in the case of the Armstrong heirs vs. Elizabeth (Allred) Armstrong, widow of James Armstrong, with the design of overturning the latter’s will.

    1830 Census of Montgomery Co., NC
    [Adjacent William Allred, p. 63]
    John Allred
    1 M 40 to 50
    1 F < 5
    1 F 5 to 10
    1 F 30 to 40
    1 F 70 to 80 [Could this be James Allred’s widow?]

     

    13 Jan 1838 (Montgomery Co., NC Deed Book 14/262)
    John (X) Aldred of Montgomery Co., NC, rocklayer, and brother to William Aldred of said county, now deceased, quitclaim all right and title to a parcel of 200 acres deeded by William Allred to Daniel Monroe. w/ K. McLennan, Duncan Monroe.

     

    1840 Census of Montgomery Co., NC, East Side of the Pee Dee, p. 232
    John Aldred
    1 M 10 to 15
    1 F 10 to 15
    1 M 60 to 70
    1 F 30 to 40

    1849/1850 -- An inventory of the assets of the estate of James Armstrong, Sr. included an old book account on "John Allred, Sen," and notes on C. J. Allred, and Duncan Allred. (See James Armstrong estate file (1850) in Richmond Co., NC records at the NC State Archives or on FamilySearch.)

     

    1850 Census of Montgomery Co., NC 223/225
    Jane Aldred                   48                    $200 RE NC
    Elizabeth                       27
    Duncan                          25                    laborer
    Calvin                            21                     tailor
    Christian                       18
    William L. Johnson          15                     laborer
    [prior page] 214/216
    Sarah Blake                   60
    Catherine Allred             22

     

    1850 Census of Richmond Co., NC, Fairground Dist., p. 307B 857/858
    Norman Gillis                  35                    farmer  $100 RE
    Margaret                       30
    Anne                             10
    William                            6
    Mary                               3
    John                               1
    Daniel                             1

     

    1860 Census of Steele’s Dist, Richmond Co., NC, p. 340 (Bostick’s Mills) 127/127
    Norman Gillis                  46                    farmer  $100/$50
    Margaret                       43
    Dorothy A.                     17
    William                          15
    Mary J.                         12
    Daniel                             9
    Bethune                           7 M
    John                               3 (b. c. 1854 d. 10 Apr 1928, Ellerbe, NC; Death cert. gives parents as Norman Gillis and Margaret Allred.)

     

    John Allred, Sr. and Jane (possibly Monroe or McLennan) were likely the parents of:

     

    Margaret Allred (b. c. 1820) m. c. 1839, Norman Gillis (b. c. 1815). Children: Dorothy Anne Gillis (b. c. 1840); William Gillis (b. c. 1845); Mary J. Gillis (b. c. 1847); John Gillis (b. c. 1849, must have died in infancy); Daniel Gillis (b. c. 1849); Bethune Gillis (b. c. 1853); John Gillis (b. c. 1857, d. 10 Apr 1928, Ellerbe, NC).[43]

    Elizabeth Allred (b. c. 1823). She appears not to have married. She moved with her mother and brother Duncan to Ocala, Marion Co., FL by 1860.

     

    Duncan M. Allred (b. c. 1825—19 Jun 1864, Richmond, VA). He is listed as owning 76 acres on Mountain Creek in the Montgomery County tax lists of 1843 and 1844. He and his brother Calvin J. worked on maintaining the road from Chisholm's old store to Mountain Creek in 1844 and 1845.[44] He was among those indebted to his presumed uncle-by-marriage James Armstrong's estate in 1849/1850. He obtained a land grant for 100 acres on both sides of Mountain Creek in 1852 adjoining Roderick McLennan and Murdoch B. McRae (Alexander McLennan and James Davis, chainers). In 1853, he was indebted to Roderick McLennan and Daniel Monroe and had to mortgage his property (W. McLennan, witness).[45] Later in that year, he sold a total 180 acres to Murdock B. McRae[46] and moved to Ocala, Marion Co., FL, by 1860 with his mother and sister. He acquired over 300 acres of land there and part of a steam mill. Joined 9th FL Inf, Co. K in 1863. Was promoted corporal, then demoted. Died of wounds in a Richmond hospital. His estate was administered by his brother Calvin J. Allred. There are deeds, which I have yet to examine by which C. J. Allred and E. W. Allred [Elizabeth?] conveyed Duncan's land to Hiram Alderman (Marion Co., FL Deed Book H;113-114, 114-115).

     

    Catherine Allred (b. c. 1828 d. aft 1900) was caretaker or housekeeper for two elderly women in 1850 (Sarah Blake) and 1860 (Margaret McLennan, widow of Roderick) Montgomery Co. Her claims against Margaret’s estate are mentioned in that lady's final settlement. She also sued the estate of John B. Gillis of Richmond County in the 1880s. This was probably the father of her brother-in-law John Gillis. Never married. Was living with her nephew William Gillis in 1900, Mineral Springs Twp, Richmond Co., NC.

     

    Calvin John Allred (4 Aug 1829-3 Sep 1900)[47] (1) Marion Co., SC (?) c. 1853, Julia A. Townsend, (2) 17 Feb 1869 (Cumberland Co., NC) Mary McPherson (8 May 1843-19 Jun 1900), daughter of Neill and Martha McPherson. His parents are identified on his Cumberland Co., NC marriage license. He was among those listed as indebted to his presumed uncle-by-marriage James Armstrong's estate in 1849/1850. He was in a mercantile partnership with a Mr. Monroe in Harlleesville, SC, which went belly-up in the mid 1850s.[48] By 1860, Calvin was still living Marion County and was described as a jeweler. He then moved to Cumberland Co. during the Civil War and was said to have helped manage the Arsenal there. Subsequently, he joined his mother and other siblings in Marion Co., FL. There was an old Allred Hotel in Ocala which it is possible he helped found or manage. Later C. J. Allred was a dentist. He and his wife are buried at Evergreen Cemetery in Ocala, Marion Co., FL. Parents of: Walter M. Allred (b. c. 1855); Julia S. Allred (b. c. 1861); Henry M. Allred (b. c. 1866); Neill McPherson Allred, an attorney, (b. c. 1869) m. 1899 Nellie Hubbard; Martha Jeanette “Mattie” Allred (b. c. 1872) m. 1900, William Wallace Haynes; May Allred (b. c. 1874); Duncan Marion Allred (b. c. 1877); Lillias Brown Allred (b. c. 1879) m. 1900, Gabriel Toombs Palmer; John C. Allred (b. c. 1882).

     

    Christian Allred (b. c. 1832)

  • Martha Allred (28 May 1776, NC-12 Aug 1846, Henry Co., IN) m. Joab Raines (12 Mar 1771, NC -15 Jul 1856, Henry Co., IN). They are both buried at old Knightstown Cemetery in Henry County (better known as Old Pioneer Cemetery or Glen Cove Cemetery). Martha's maiden name is known from the biography of a grandson, Hiram Raines, where it is written "Aldred."[49] The family resided variously in Randolph County, NC (1800 Census, p. 339, just after marriage), Wayne Co., IN (1820, p. 226, 1830, p. 81, and 1840, p. 360) and afterwards in Henry County. Joab left a will dated 7 Aug 1849 in Henry County which names only one son, Henry W. Raines, but alludes to other children. Henry Shinn was executor. Children: James Alfred [Allred?] Raines (12 Aug 1800, Guilford Co., NC--10 Feb 1856) m. (1) Catherine DeMoss, (2) 1823 (Wayne Co., IN) Elizabeth Wright; William Raines (21 May 1802--31 Jul 1843, Marion County, IN); Joab Raines (17 Mar 1808, NC--20 Apr 1866, Sullivan Co., MO) m. Nancy Clevenger; Levi Raines (1810 Preble Co., OH-10 Jul 1835, Wayne Co., IN) m. Phebe Reynolds; Martha Raines (31 Oct 1814--27 Apr 1877, Madison Co., IN) m. William W. Williams; Anasuel Joel "Zail" Raines (15 Jun 1817--16 Jan 1879, Madison Co., IN) m. (1) Mary Toms Elliott (2) Cynthia Anne Lower; Henry W. Raines (1820--1868, Madison Co., IN) m. Emily Frederick.

  • Margaret Allred (b. 11 May 1778, NC -18 Mar 1855, Wayne Co., IN) Thomas Allred (24 Feb 1781, NC-27 Sep 1860, NC) a bricklayer, according to the 1850 census. Margaret and her husband are buried at the King Cemetery in Richmond, IN. Wayne County is just across the border from Preble, Darke and Butler counties in OH.[50] The biography of a grandson “Thomas A. Hoover,” as published in A Standard History of Kosciusko County, Indiana (1919), p. 651, states that subject’s father, “Andrew Hoover… On February 9, 1837…married Miss Mary Allred, a native of Ohio, though married in Wayne County, Indiana, where her parents were pioneers. She was the daughter of Thomas and Margaret (Allred) Allred, who came from North Carolina to Ohio about 1808, and her father subsequently served in the War of 1812.” This statement is important, because it shows that Thomas Allred was originally settled in Ohio and that his wife’s maiden name was also Allred. I think it very likely that the connection to James Allred's family is through Margaret and not Thomas.[51] Thomas did sell property in Butler Co., OH from Wayne Co., IN, where he later settled permanently.[52] He claimed service in the Ohio Militia during the War of 1812 under Capt. John Fleming and Major Lanier. He made an application under warrant number 55-80-8769, although it was rejected. Children (per Thomas's estate settlement[53]) were: William Allred (b. 11 Sep 1806 d. 1839, Wayne Co., IN)[54] m. 5 Mar 1829 (Wayne Co., IN) Rebecca Spivy; Zebedee Allred (15 Nov 1808--2 Dec 1827); Lilly Ann Allred (22 Aug 1821--9 Aug 1873) m. Landon R. Thomas; Louvisa Allred (18 Oct 1813--2 Mar 1848) m. James E. Bryant (1809-1871) (grandchildren, James Bryant, Robert Bryant, John Bryant, Frances Bryant, Lucady Bryant m. Joseph Lacy); Mary or Polly Allred (b. 19 Jan 1818) m. 9 Feb 1837, Alfred Hoover; Miriam Allred (b. 22 Nov 1816) m. John Duke; Lusada Allred (b. 6 Jan 1811 d. 3 Dec 1902, Sherrad, IL) m. 5 Mar 1829 (Wayne Co., IN) John Spivey.

  • Delilah Allred (2 Jan 1780-9 Nov 1861) m. Stephen Williams (4 May 1774-1 Jun 1830) of Richmond Co., NC. Her obituary in the Nashville Christian Advocate, 19 Dec 1861, states she was born in Randolph Co., NC. Had seven sons, four daughters. Henry Williams (b. c. 1804) m. Sarah T.; Elizabeth Williams m. ---- Baldwin; Wilson Williams (1807-1877) m. Ann Crawford; James Williams (b. c. 1810) m. Ann M. ----; Ann T. Williams (b. c. 1811) m. (1) ---- Harris, (2) Dr. John McLeod; Stephen Williams (b. c. 1813) m. (1) Jane Thomas, (2) Phebe ----; Robert T. Williams (b. c. 1816) m. Nancy ----; Rachel Williams (10 Dec 1816-14 Dec 1861, Holmes Co., MS) m. 1835, Stephen Pankey, Jr. (1815-1857); Lewis C. Williams (b. c. 1820); Martin Williams (b. c. 1821) m. Martha E. McLeod; Delilah Williams m. 1849, Martin McLeroy. Many of these children moved to Jackson and Ouachita parishes, LA.

  • James Allred, Jr. (c. 1784—Nov 1863, Marion Co., IN) m. 6 Nov 1801 (bond, in Richmond Co., NC, bondsman Thomas Bostick) Anne Grantham (b. c. 1785). Note that Moses Grantham sold the land acquired by James Allred, Sr. in 1801, and Anne Grantham almost certainly comes from that family. It is just possible that this younger James is the individual who is actually being referenced in some of the Montgomery and Richmond County, NC records before 1810. This family moved to Preble Co., OH, then to Marion Co., IN. James served allegedly in the War of 1812 from Ohio in Capt. Hawkins’s Ohio Militia. He made claim for a bounty land warrant (warrant 55-16-58817), but it was rejected,[55] His first land acquisition in Preble was granted 2 Feb 1816 in Range 2, Township 6, Section 31.[56] His administrator at his death was son Garrison W. Allred who made bond 7 Dec 1863 with George F. Meyers, surety in Marion Co., IN. Children:[57] Charity Allred (26 Dec 1802-13 Oct 1883, Chariton Co., MO) m. 3 Sep 1818 (Preble Co., OH) Isaac Messick; James Grantham Allred (c. 1805, NC – aft 1860, Tippecanoe Co., IN) m. (1) 23 Oct 1828 (Wayne Co., IN) Rebecca Walter, (2) Patsy Runkle Oler; Mary Allred (b. c. 1806-aft 1870, Marion Co., IN) m. 2 Feb 1830 (Preble Co., OH), John Vaneman Hopkins; Ruhama Allred (22 Jun 1810, Montgomery Co., OH-12 Jan 1890), m. 3 Jan 1831 (Butler Co., OH), Henry C. Coleman; Garrison W. Allred (c. 1824-10 Jun 1879, Marion Co., IN) m. Frances Jane Brown; Jane Allred (b. c. 1830, Ohio). There were likely other children, as yet unidentified.[58]

  • William Allred (c. 1780/90?--c. 1837/1838, Montgomery Co., NC).[59] Mary --- . May have come to the Pee Dee section with his brother John slightly before their father. Acted along with brother John in 1803 as a chain bearer on one of brother-in-law Stephen Williams’s land grants.

1830 Census of Montgomery Co., NC [Adj. John Allred, p. 63]
William Allred 1 M <5
1 F<5
1 M 40 to 50
1 F 5 to 10

2 F 10 to 15

1 F 40 to 50

1831—The estate file of Stephen Williams of Richmond Co., NC shows a note due the estate from William Allred for $2.03. I believe Delilah Williams, Stephen’s wife, was a sister. 13 Jan 1838 (Montgomery Co., NC Deed Book 14/262) John (X) Aldred of Montgomery Co., NC, rocklayer, and brother to William Aldred of said county, now deceased, quitclaim all right and title to a parcel of 200 acres deeded by William Allred to Daniel Monroe. w/ K. McLennan, Duncan Monroe.

1840 Census of Richmond Co., NC, p. 241
Mary Aldred 1 M < 5
1 F 10 to 15

1 M 10 to 15
2 F 15 to 20

2 F 20 to 30

1 F 40 to 50
Likely children (among unknown others):

  • Christian Allred (b. c. 1820). She was not the wife of Kenneth C. Chisholm, as Joe McLaurin once claimed. Kenneth's wife was a McLennan and he was already married to her by 1850.

  • Martin James Allred (b. c. 1828--3 Dec 1864, Pt. Lookout, MD), m. c. 1849, Mary Ann Newby (16 Aug 1831--1902, High Point, N.C.). Martin is identified as a cobbler in the 1850 census of Richmond Co., NC. He received a 100 acre land grant on Rocky Fork and the south side of the Schoolhouse Branch in Richmond Co. in 1852 as “M. James Allred.” He died of disease while part of Co. I, 13th Regt. NC Troops, C.S.A. After his death, his family moved first to Davidson Co., NC, and from thence to High Point, where son John J. Allred became one of the city's first grocers. Children: Susan Jeanetta Allred (18 May 1851--6 Jan 1908) m. 6 Nov 1870, Joseph Felix Blair (9 Dec 1839--16 Jun 1916); John James Allred (6 Oct 1853--21 Mar 1933, Buncombe Co., N.C.); Nathaniel Emerson Allred (7 Nov 1855--31 Jan 1947, High Point, N.C.) m. Mary Rigler (1855-1933); William McKindred “Mac” Allred (1 Sep 1858--29 Jul 1942, High Point, N. C.)[60] Josephine Dillard; Henry T. Allred (1861-1905, Greensboro, N.C.) m. Emma Thompson.

Rachel Tolbert (b. c. 1805), widow of John Tolbert, may be associated with this family. Christian Allred lived with Rachel’s son Joseph or Josiah Tolbert in both 1850 and 1860. Martin Allred actually appears twice in the 1850 census, once in his own household, and a second time in the household of Rachel Tolbert's son John. Josiah Tolbert's wife Sarah (b. c. 1823) could also be the connection. Two of the older children of Josiah and Sarah were named William and John Tolbert.

  • Eve Allred (3 Apr 1788, NC—13 May 1847, Darke Co., OH) m. 2 Jun 1807 (Butler Co., OH), James Emerson (17 Jul 1783, Windsor Co., VT—31 Jan 1853, Darke Co., OH), son of Kendall and Elizabeth Pratt Emerson. Eve’s husband was the brother of Isaac Allred’s wife (see below). Eve and her husband are buried at Cedar Grove Cemetery in Hollansburg, OH. From the 1880 census records of some of her children, we can be certain she was born in North Carolina. It is likely she came with her potential brotherJames Allredand her brother or brother-in-law, Thomas Allred, along with several cousins. Eve is an important link in the argument connecting these siblings because her son John Pratt Emerson went back to North Carolina before 1850 to live with Elizabeth Allred Armstrong, after the latter's husband died in 1849. Elizabeth was still living with his family in 1870. The only likely reason I believe this could have happened is that Eve and Elizabeth were probably

Her children were: Edward Emerson; John Pratt Emerson (1827, OH—1910, Montgomery Co., NC) m. Flora Alice Phillips; Annie Emerson m. Eli Hunt; George Washington Emerson; William Henry Emerson (1808—1877, Darke Co., OH) m. Catherine Buckingham; Elizabeth Emerson (1816-1903) m. Thomas Stapleton; Diadem Emerson (b. c. 1821) m. Samuel J. Rich; James Emerson (c. 1823-1874, Madison Co., OH) m. Mary Ann Conway; Winthrop Milton Emerson (b. 6 Apr 1829) m. Elizabeth Jane Cook.

  • Elizabeth Allred (c. 1790 – aft 1870, Montgomery Co., NC) m. James Armstrong (d. 19 Mar 1849), son of Isaac Armstrong of Richmond Co., NC. Her identity as an Allred is based on the testimony of Lively Ussery, (b. c. 1770) widow of Peter Ussery, of Marshall Co., TN in Jan 1854. When asked if she remembered whom Armstrong married, she stated, "Yes, perfectly well, he married Elizabeth Allread." William Ussery of McNairy Co., TN made a similar statement when deposed in this case.[61] Note than one John Ussery was a neighbor to the land James Allred purchased in Richmond Co. in 1801. They were not likely married until the 1820s, for James Armstrong appears single in the Richmond County census taken that year (p. 198). Ann T. McLeod, daughter of Stephen Williams and wife Delilah (nee Allred?) also gave testimony, stating she frequented the Armstrong home and was there around the time he made his will.

Of considerable interest is a deed which directly connects James Armstrong to Joseph Allred, husband of Rachel Allred. One of the early land acquisitions made by John Allred, son of Joseph, when he first came to the Pee Dee was preserved in the family and finally recorded (or perhaps re-recorded due to the loss of deed books in the courthouse fires) in September of 1890.[62] It is dated 2 Jan 1836 and involves 300 acres in Richmond and Montgomery counties on Christopher Chappell's Spring Branch, conveyed by Brittain Chappell, executor of Christopher Chappell, to John Allred, adjoining John Chappell, Brittain Chappell, James Armstrong, John Crouch, and Joseph Gad. It was witnessed by James Armstrong and Joseph Allred. Joseph was, of course, resident in Randolph County, but apparently visiting his son and possible other kin in that community at the time. Elizabeth Armstrong and her husband had no children, and there seems to have been a struggle over James's estate (which was sizeable), based on the terms of his will.[63] It provided his widow with absolute title (as opposed to a mere life estate) in a portion of his property.

The aforementioned testimony was gathered as part of that case. James's natural heirs, including John Allred, son of Joseph and Rachel Allred, who had married James Armstrong's sister Amelia Armstrong, sued jointly, contesting the validity of the will.[64] Although the courts repeatedly reaffirmed the document, the matter was not resolved until c. 1858 in the Richmond County Court of Equity. One of the people summoned to give testimony was Jane Allred, almost certainly the widow of John Allred above. The details of her testimony are not contained in James Armstrong's estate file.

 

That estate also reflects James Armstrong's business dealings with other Allreds in this neighborhood. He had an old book account on John Allred, Sr. and notes on John's sons C. J. Allred and Duncan Allred among his papers. In 1850, Elizabeth Armstrong lived in Richmond County with a young man named John Emerson, born in Ohio.

By 1860, Elizabeth Armstrong had removed from Richmond County to nearby Rush's Mills in neighboring Montgomery Co., NC. With her lived an overseer J. J. Richardson and Bartlett Davis (aged 40) and his wife Mary (aged 35), with their son Thomas (aged 8). It is not known whether the Davises were related to Elizabeth, but it is possible. Elizabeth's estate is valued at $3,000 worth of land and $25,000 worth of personal property (probably slaves).

 

By 1870, Elizabeth is living with John Pratt Emerson (2 Feb 1827, OH—13 May 1910) and his wife Flora Alice Phillips (1831-1917), daughter of the Rev. Eli Phillips, in Rocky Springs Township, Montgomery Co., NC. Her age is grossly exaggerated at 96. But John is the same person who resided with her in 1850. Former Allred and Armstrong slaves live nearby and Emerson appears with $3500 worth of real estate. The Emersons are buried at Mt. Carmel Presbyterian Church in Richmond Co., NC.

It turns out that John P. Emerson is a very important element in this story. He is widely believed to have been the son of James Emerson (17 Jul 1783, Reading, MA -- 31 Mar 1853, Hollansburg, Darke Co., OH) and Eve Allred (3 Apr 1788, N.C.[65] -- 13 May 1847, Darke Co., OH) who were married 2 Jun 1807 in Butler Co., OH. Their tombstones are legible at Cedar Grove Cemetery near Hollansburg. I believe this to be correct, and I believe that Eve was almost certainly a member of this Allred family. It is likely she went to Ohio with a number of her siblings and other close relatives, particularly James Allred who settled in nearby Preble Co. initially and Isaac Allred who married James Emerson's sister in Butler County. It is likely the family sent John P. Emerson back to North Carolina to care for his aunt and that, in compensation, she allowed him to become her heir. The Civil War may have interrupted this arrangement temporarily. But Emerson did buy 500 acres of land in his own right in Montgomery Co. on Silver Run from Murdock B. McRae (who, by the way drew up the will of James Armstrong) in 1855. The land is described as adjoining John Allred’s patent (evidently land patented by John Allred, son of Joseph and Rachel Allred in nearby Richmond County), for later, Emerson sold a small portion of this land to J. T. Allred, son of Isaac Allred and grandson of John (Montgomery Co., NC Deed Book 47, p. 383). There are no deed records in either Richmond or Montgomery Counties which show Elizabeth Allred conveying property or that would indicate she died with a will or an estate. If such could be found, her heirs would have been her siblings and their children or grandchildren. We could then potentially solidify this family further. Perhaps further litigation needs to be investigated in either Montgomery or Richmond County to discover whether she was dispossessed of her property and, possibly, who her natural heirs were. It may be, however, that John D. Emerson obtained her property in exchange for caring for her in her later years, either with her consent or through a legal maneuver.

  1. A Potentially Associated Family, with Representatives in the Southwest Ohio-Southeast Indiana Borderlands

              There was yet another set of Allred men, some of whom lived in the same border region between Ohio and Indiana in the counties of Preble, Hamilton, Butler, Darke (Ohio), and Wayne and Henry (Indiana), who I think may have been part of a very closely associated family which has been little explored as yet. They are bound to the foregoing family group by the marriage of Thomas Allred to Margaret Allred and by the marriage of Isaac Allred (Allread) to Eve Allred Emerson’s sister-in-law, Lucy Emerson. I suspect they are children of the senior James Allred’s brother John. My father’s atDNA results at FamilyTreeDNA show close matches to one descendant each of Isaac Allread of the list below and of John Allred of Greene County, Illinois. And both of my father’s matches also match one another to a very significant degree.

Very little is known about John Allred, son of Thomas, Sr. In the following chronology, we will summarize a few facts which may shed a little light concerning him and his children. He is typically said to have married Ruth Lane, and though we can definitely show that his wife was named Ruth, her maiden name does not seem provable.[66] This family seems displays a pattern of having been at odds with the York family in the 1810s.

 

12 Sep 1786 James Allred sold a 300 land entry to his brother John Allred on Solomon's Creek beginning at a pond on the west side of a branch at a white oak and includes improvements.  Was surveyed 31 Aug 1784 with James Allred and John Allred, chainers. The documentation calls this John explicitly the son of Thomas. This grant was issued by the Secretary of State 18 Aug 1787 (Grant 383).

1790 Census of Randolph Co., NC (p. 285)
John Allred
5 Males under 16 (James, Thomas, John, William, others)
2 females (Ruth and Miriam?)

1 Male over 16    (John of Thomas)

28 Apr 1794 (Randolph Co., NC Deed Book 5:174) John Allred and wife Ruth sold to Thomas Allred for £30, 150 acres more or less on both sides of Solomon's Creek which was cleared by John Allred 18 Aug 1787.

1799 Tax List of Randolph Co., NC John Allred of Thomas [in D. Dawson's Dist,] 1 wp, 150 acres 1800 Census of Randolph Co., NC (p. 297)
John Allred
2 Males < 10       (Isaac, Henry)
2 females less than 10

3 Males 10 to 16 (Thomas and others)
1 female 26 to 45

1 Male 16 to 26 (perhaps John)
1 Male 26 to 45 (John of Thomas)

1803 Tax List of Randolph County, NC
John Allred of Thomas, 176 acres, 1 white poll

11 May 1807—John Wilson complained against William York, son of Catren York, for coming to his house and stealing his hat. Thomas Allred bound surety for York’s appearance. Jeremiah York was a witness for Wilson.

May 1813--Presentment of John Allred (of Thomas) for assault on William York,

1 Feb 1813. w/ Jeremiah York, James White. Aug 1813—Presentment of John Allred for assaulting Joel Craven,

1 Aug 1813. William York prosecuted and witnessed. Jeremiah York was also a witness.

Nov 1814—Thomas Allred charged with an assault upon John Allred.

1815 Tax List of Randolph County, NC John Allred listed with 176 1/2 acres on Solomon's Branch in Capt. Hardy Ward's District --  no polls [probably because John had aged out of liability by this time.]

Aug 1816—Thomas Allred charged with an assault on John Amick,

1 Aug 1816. May 1818—John Allred, planter, presented along with Crabtree York for committing an affray,

1 May. Tobias York, witness. James Cox and Henry Allred to be summoned as witnesses originally, but the names marked out.

Aug 1818—John McCollum and Jabez York charged with an affray,

1 May. Jeremiah York was also charged with an affray with John McCollum, same day. Among those summoned were James Cox, Miriam Aldridge and Henry Allred, though Henry’s name was later marked out.

1820 Tax List of Randolph County, NC Unless he is the individual listed with no land and one white poll, this John Allred is not among those taxed in Capt. D. McMasters's District in this year. More than likely, the John Allred declaring one white poll and no land is the son of Joseph by that name who later went to Richmond County. John's absence may mean he died or moved out between 1815 and 1820, but there is no indication of what became of his property or what became of his wife, Ruth.

1830 Census of Randolph County (p. 57) [Possibly... Robert Allred, a potential grandson, lived a couple of houses away from this John at the time, but I have my doubts.]
John Allred
1 Male 60 to 70
1 Female 60 to 70

Clearly, John was blessed with far more sons than daughters and their ages, as revealed in census records, provide a nice fit for the men grouped here, all of whom originated in North Carolina. But because John left no estate records or will (in fact, we are not quite sure really, even where or when he died), there is no way to provide absolute proof of relationship. For now, what is posited here will remain entirely theoretical.

(1)     William Allred (b. c. 1773—aft 1850, Randolph Co., NC) m. (Keziah?) Ann (Field?) (b. c. 1772—aft 1850, Randolph Co., NC).[67]  William’s position here is not totally assured. But we do know that he and James Allred moved to same general area of Guilford County which argues for their close kinship. William was there much earlier. His sojourn in Guilford lasted the better part of sixty years and was marked by a remarkably close relationship with the Robert Fields, Sr. family into which some of his children married. It is likely he named an older son for Robert Field, Sr. and another for George Field. But he ultimately returned to northern Randolph County, virtually penniless. By 1850, he and his wife and some of their children are to be found in Randolph. He probably died shortly thereafter. The following chronology traces his consistent presence in the region:

20 Dec 1795 (Guilford Co., NC Deed Book 6:221) John Hawkins of Orange Co to Samuel Hemphill, for £160, 461 acres, both sides of Quaker Fork of Alamance Creek adj. Capt. Nelson, Samuel Field, Sam’l Devinney, Robert Morrow. w/ Samuel Hemphill, Jr., Wm Aldred.

1800 Census of Guilford Co., NC, p. 621 (next to Robert Field and Thomas Causey)
William Allred 2 M <10
1 F <10
1 M 26/45
1 F 26/45

25 Jul 1808 (Guilford Co., NC Deed Book 17:185) Samuel Hemphill to Robert Field, Jr., for $50, 21 acres on Alamance. w/ William Allread, Samuel Hemphill, Jr.

25 Jul 1808 (Guilford Co., NC Deed Book 15:76) Samuel Hemphill to William Alred, for $53, 29 acres on Alamance Creek adj. Robert Field, Jr., Samuel Hemphill, Jr.

25 Jan 1810 (Guilford Co., NC Deed Book 10:72) Sam’l Hemphill, Sr. to Samuel Hemphill, Jr., for $500, 411 acres, Alamance Creek, adj. Robert Fields, Samuel Devinney, John Hemphill, Little Alamance Creek, joining William Alrod. w/ John Hemphill, James Hemphill.

29 Sep 1814 (Guilford Co., NC Deed Book 12:105) William Field to son Jeremiah Field, 132 acres, 64 poles on the waters of Alamance adj. John Caulk. w/ Jonathan Field, Robert Aldred.

29 Dec 1815 (Guilford Co., NC Deed Book 12:470) Samuel Hemphill, Sr. and John Hemphill to John Hardin, for $114.75, 100 acres 117 poles on Alamance Creek adj. Forehand, Sam’l Hamilton, Robert Caulk. w/ Samuel Hemphill, Wm Aldred.

23 Feb 1816 (Guilford Co., NC Deed Book 13:279) Jeremiah Field to son John Field, for love and affection, 202 acres on Alamance Creek adj. William Alred. w/ Jeremiah Field, Solomon Turner.

14 Feb 1817 (Guilford Co., NC Deed Book 13:280) John Field to William Dickey, for $700, 202 acres on Alamance Creek adj. William Allred. w/ Timothy Cude, John Cude.

10 Jan 1819 (Guilford Co., NC Deed Book 17:209) Robert Field, Sr. to Robert Field, Jr., for £75, 30 acres 90 poles on Alamance Creek. w/ Robert Allrod, George Field.

9 Sep 1819 (Guilford Co., NC Deed Book 13:275) Robert Fields, Sr. to Nicholas Ogburn, for $616, 154 acres on the south side of Troublesome Creek in Guilford and Rockingham counties, adj. Phillip Trotter, William Mortimer, Reuben Massey, Sampson Lanier. w/ Wm Blair, Robt Allrod.

6 Apr 1820 (Guilford Co., NC Deed Book 15:53) Robert Field, Sr. to George Field, for £100, 400 acres on Alamance, Polecat, Sandy Creeks, adj. John Field, David Lewis, John Hawkins. w/ Wm Alrod, Robert Field, Jr.

4 May 1820 (Guilford Co., NC Deed Book 15:47) Robert Field, Sr. to George Field, his son, for $400, 180 acres on Alamance Creek. w/ Robert Julen, Wm Alrod.

5 May 1820 (Guilford Co., NC Deed Book 14:282) Robert Field, Sr. to Thomas Alexander, a $650 bond, promising to deed land NW of Alamance Creek which Field and his son William sold to Alexander once full payment is received. w/ Robert Allred, James Jones.

1820 – William Field, Sr. bound as security on the estate of Robert Field, Jr. with securities: John Elliott, William Aldred, George Field, Oliver Hackett. (Guilford County Estate Files)

1820 Census of Guilford Co., NC
John Allred 1 M 16/26
1 F <10

1 F 16/26

William Allred
2 M < 10
1 F < 10
1 M 10/16
1 F 10/16
1 M 16/18
1 F > 45
1 M 16/26         
1 M > 45

12 Mar 1822 (Guilford Co., NC Deed Book 15:555) William Dickey to George Field, acknowledges a quitclaim for 570 acres on Polecat, Alamance and Sandy Creeks adj. Robert Field, Jr., deceased, and Jeremy Reynolds. w/ Rob’t Alred. Original instrument witnessed by John Powell, Absalom Jarrell.

In Feb 1824, Robert Allred (likely an older son of William) was appointed overseer of the road from Peter Fields to the fork of the road in the room of Jonathan Reynolds. Among those appointed to work this road were likely other sons of William: “John Aldred,” “George Aldred,” and “Clement (aka Clemmons) Aldred” and also, Absalom Fields.

17 May 1826 (Guilford Co., NC Deed Book 16:353) Robert Irvin to William Field, Jr., for $120, 50 acres on Alamance Creek adj. Nathan Armfield. w/ Sam’l Hemphill, William Alrod.

In Feb 1827, Hunsley Field was appointed overseer from Peter Fields to the forks of the road in Peter Bowman’s room. Those assigned to work the road included Robert Aldred, John Aldred, George Aldred, and Clement Aldred along with a number of Fields, Bowmans, Hemphills, and Reynolds.[68]

1830 Census of Guilford County, NC, p. 155
Wm Aldred (near Absalom Field)
1 M 10/15
1 F 15/20
1 M 15/20
1 F 50/60
1 M 50/60

1840 Census of Guilford County, NC, p. 255
William Aldred, Sr. 1 M 60/70
1 F 60/70

Absalom Aldred (2 doors away)
1 M < 5
1 F < 5
1 M 20/30
1 F 20/30

12 Oct 1848,
27 May 1848,
10 Oct 1848 (Guilford Deed Book 30: 633, 656) William D. Fields, Emsley Fields, and Jesse Wood each sold their interests in the estate of George Fields, deceased, to Robert Allred, in three separate instruments. Witnesses: Richard Fields, John B. Levy, Hetty Bolin.

18 Feb 1849 (Guilford Co., NC Deed Book 36:128) J. A. Mebane, Clerk and Master in Equity of Guilford Superior Court to George Alexander, for $797, 690 acres in Guilford and Randolph adj. Jones, Hemphill, Wood, near Ingold’s Spring, Jacob Coble. Sold due to a petition by William Aldred and wife and others

Fall Term 1847 to sell the lands of George Field, deceased. w/ W. R. D. Lindsay, Solomon Hopkins.

1850 Census of Randolph Co., NC, Northern Dist, p. 239 B 1107
John Allred        51

Mary                 45

Sylvania             16

Lydia                 13

Daniel               12
1108
Absalom Allred   35

Rhody               34

William              12

Eli                     8

Fereby              10

Jesse                9

Gideon               6

Laney                3

Clement             2
1109
Wm Allred         77

Ann                   78

Just as with his assumed brother James, there is no definite way to prove the heirs of William Allred. I have used association with the Fields family as one way to distinguish his children. There are also appear to have been two sons named John who are relatively easy to separate from one another. Finally, William’s family was rather attached to the Christian names Sylvania and Clemmons (or Clement).[69] But I still may have confused certain members of the two families.

(a) Daughter, born 1790 to 1800.

(b) Son, born 1790 to 1800:  John Allred (c. 1799—aft. 1850, Randolph Co., NC) m. c. 1819, Mary “Polly” Field (b. c. 1804), daughter of Robert Field, Jr. Children included: Sylvania Allred (b. c. 1834); Lydia Allred (b. c. 1836); Daniel Allred (b. c. 1838). Certainly, there were older children, their names unknown.

(c) Son, born 1790 to 1800: Robert Allred (c. 1795--Jun 1852, Randolph Co., NC) m. 28 Dec 1818 Nancy Alexander (11 Apr 1804--10 Feb 1893) (Guilford, bondsman Charles Hardin). She is buried at Old Salem Cemetery in Randolph Co. Robert Allred acquired a land grant for 98 acres on Bush Creek and Sandy Creek adjoining himself and others (entered 25 Jan 1837). It was surveyed 8 May 1837 with Nathan and Aaron York, chainers. His children included:

Thomas W. Allred (b. c. 1823) m. c. 1849 Sarah;
Sylvania Allred (b. c. 1830);
Sarah Allred (b. c. 1832);
Clemmons Minus Allred (b. c. 1834);
Reuben Allred (b. c. 1837);
William Allred (b. c. 1841);
Doctor Benjamin Franklin Allred (b. c. 1843).

(d) Son, born 1802 to 1804:
Clemmons Allred (22 Dec 1804--14 Jun 1896) m. 7 Nov 1827 (Randolph Co., NC, Reuben Giles), Sylvania Cude (c. 1809-1897). Buried at Pleasant Cross Christian Church. Clement Allred sold 50 acres on Alamance Creek adj. Nathan Armfield to Robert Julian in Guilford Co. (Deed Book 26, p. 15) in 1839. Shortly afterward, he seems to have moved back to Randolph County. Clemmons Allred is closely associated with his brother Robert Allred, and appears next to him in the 1850 census or Randolph County. His children included:

Mary Allred (b. c. 1830) m. W. H. Burgess; Letty Allred (b. c. 1832);
Lillia Arrena Allred (b. c. 1834) m. David J. Laughlin;
Robert Julian Allred (b. c. 1837);
Martha Jane Allred (b. c. 1839-27 Jun 1921);
Thomas M. Allred (b. c. 1850).

(e) Daughter, born 1804 to 1810:

(f) Son, born 1804 to 1810: Perhaps, George Allred, mentioned in several records, principally road records and probably named for George Fields. But what became of him? He may have died young, as no George Allred born in North Carolina of an appropriate age has been found.

(g) Son, born 1810 to 1815:

(h) Daughter, born 1810 to 1815: Perhaps, Keziah Allred (b. c. 1815—aft. 1880) who married 14 Jan 1854 (bond) Milton Hicks in Randolph Co., NC. Hicks was significantly younger. The only thing linking her to this family is her given name.

(i) Son, born 1815 to 1820:  Absalom Allred (1817-1892, Edgar Co., IL) m. 2 Jan 1838 (Randolph Co., NC; bondsman, Dobson C. Burrow) Rhoda Reynolds (1820-1912, Edgar Co., IL). They are buried at the Ogden Cemetery. Their children:

William Riley Allred (15 Jul 1838-7Apr 1927, Marion Co., IN);
Phebe Fereby Allred (b. c. 1840);
Jesse Allred (b. c. 1844);
Eli Allred (b. c. 1842);
Gideon Allred (b. c. 1846);
Laney Allred (b. c. 1847);
Clemmons C. Allred (31 Oct 1848-8 Sep 1932, Marion Co., IN);
Mary Allred (b. c. 1852);
Wesley Allred (b. c. 1855);
Roxannah Allred (b. c. 1860). (2)
James Allred (b. c. 1775/80) m. Jane ----.[70]

We know per the 1799 tax list of Randolph County that a John Allred resident in Randolph had a son named James who was of age in that year.[71] This James is almost certainly the one referenced in a criminal action from Nov 1797 in which Jane Allred, wife of James, an unmarried woman named Miriam Allred, and Martha Curtis, wife of John, were accused of assaulting Mary Crabtree at Sandy Creek Meetinghouse. Interestingly, John Allred posted security for the appearance of his “daughter” Miriam in court after this incident, suggesting perhaps that Miriam was this James Allred’s sister.[72] This is almost certainly the same James Allred who appears in the 1800 Census of Randolph County, aged 16 to 26 years of age. His only child is a son under 10 years old (perhaps Robert Allred). His wife falls into the same 16 to 26 age category.

"James Allred of John" appears again in the 1803 tax list of Randolph County with 294 acres.[73] In 1801, he had been granted 22 acres on Solomon’s Branch adjacent Thomas Allred, John Allred, and Isaac Lane. Christian Spoon and John Allred were his chain bearers. He served as chain bearer, along with Levi Allred, on two separate surveys for John Jones (who married his aunt Elizabeth Allred) in 1802 and 1806.[74] In Randolph County on 14 Jan 1810, he made a complaint against Barnaby York for an assault which took place the house of Jeremiah York on 6 Jan.  But he quickly moved away to Guilford County. There, he shows up in the 1810 census of Guilford (p. 923) with 1 male under 10, 1 male 10 to 16, 1 male 26 to 45, 3 females under 10, 1 female 26 to 45. In 1830, he was still in Guilford County (p. 122) aged 50 to 60. His wife was 40 to 50. He had one male 5 to 10 years of age, 1 male 10 to 15 years old and 1 male 15 to 20, along with 1 younger female aged 10 to 15. In 1811, this James Allred sold his 21 acres on Solomon’s Branch to Isaac Hobson of Chatham County for $50.[75]

In 1817, this time as "James Allred of Guilford County, North Carolina," he sold 75 acres on Solomon’s Branch adjacent Lewis and George Wright to John Harper.[76] He had purchased this tract in 1815 from Levi Allred (b. 1770/1780).[77] To solidify this identification further, I appeal to a deed in Guilford County dated 3 Mar 1813 from Zebulon Causey to Enoch Davis for land on the Brushy Fork of Alamance Creek, which was witnessed by both James Allred and Jane Allred, the same wife identified in the 1798 Randolph County criminal action.[78] In Feb 1813, James Allred was appointed constable in Guilford with Joseph Phipps, John Hardin, and Levi Tucker, his securities.[79] In Feb 1826, Jesse Hinshaw was appointed overseer of the road from Absalom Fields’s Creek to Jarrell’s Branch in the room of Gideon Alexander. James Allred was assigned to work this stretch of road.[80] Since James disappears from the record after 1830 with no landholding, and no will or estate, I can only make a stab at identifying his children from the clues above. One guide has been to work by process of elimination vis-à-vis James’s assumed brother William, whose children are far more apparent.

  • Male born 1796-1800: (?) Talbert or Tolbert Allred 14 Nov 1825 (Guilford Co., NC; bondsman, Martin Armfield), Polly Frye (b. c. 1808—aft 1880, Anderson Co., TN). Talbert Allred appears in a single road order in Guilford County. He also witnessed a deed from Rachel Millis to James and William Millis for lands on Polecat Creek in 1827 (Guilford Co., NC Deed Book 19:60). He was a miner and moved to Stokes Co. (probably modern Forsyth) prior to 1830. He appears in the 1830 and 1840 (p. 273) censuses there. Afterwards, he removed to McDowell Co., NC by 1850. He died prior to 1860. Many of his children then continued on to Tennessee, some in the neighborhood of John Allred’s family below. I am not certain whether he belongs to James or not, but there seems to be a good possibility. Among his children were: James F. Allred (b. c. 1828); Jane Allred (b. c. 1829; never married); John Larkin Allred (b. c. 1831); Martin Allred (b. c. 1834); Henry H. Allred (b. c. 1838); M. Elizabeth Allred (b. c. 1842) m. Wesley Haney; F. J. Allred (b. c. 1846; male); Robert B. Allred (b. c. 1848); Albert Franklin Allred (15 Dec 1851-19 Aug 1924, Anderson Co., TN) m. (1) 27 Sep 1874, Sarah C. Warwick; (2) 16 Dec 1888, Nancy Petree.

  • Male born 1800-1810: John Allred (b. c. 1801, NC—aft 1870, Union Co., TN?) m. 25 Oct 1821 (Guilford Co., NC; bondsman, Absalom Jarrell), Hannah Causey (b. c. 1802). This family moved initially to Knox Co., TN by 1840 (p. 32; also 1850 census), then to Loy’s Crossroads, Union Co., TN (1860 and 1870 [p. 260]). Interestingly, one of this John Allred’s sons, John Fletcher Allred seems to have removed to Illinois shortly before the Civil War. He served in the Union Army and then moved to Henry Co., IA, where he married a daughter of Lydia Allred Caulk. I believe this was a union of cousins. Children included: Joseph W. Allred (b. c. 1822, NC) m. Mary A. (b. c. 1815), lived Knox Co., TN; Enoch Davis Allred (b. c. 1825) m. 9 Jan 1846 (Anderson Co., TN), Lucy (or Lissa) Fielding, later resident in Knox Co., TN; Rachel Allred (b. c. 1831); Sarah Allred (b. c. 1833); James M. Allred (23 Sep 1833—5 Apr 1877, Union Co., TN) m. Melvina (b. c. 1845); Hardin Tolliver Allred (b. c. 1837) m. 20 Sep 1860 (Knox Co., TN) Rachel E. Murphy (b. c. 1832), of Knox Co., TN; Hannah Allred (b. c. 1838); John Fletcher Allred (19 Jul 1841, Knox Co., TN--9 Feb 1884, Henry Co., IA) m. 31 Aug 1876, Mary Emily Caulk, daughter of Lydia Allred Caulk, below; Sylvania Allred (b. c. 1844).

  • Female born 1800-1810: Lydia "Lilly" Allred (5 Dec 1809—29 Jun 1876, Henry Co, IA) 3 Mar 1830 Henry Caulk (b. c. 1805) (Guilford, bondsman Jesse Alexander).

  • Female born 1800-1810: Polly Allred 14 Apr 1830 James Taylor (Guilford, bondsman, Jesse Alexander).

  • Female born 1800-1810. (?) Elizabeth Allred 18 Oct 1829 (Guilford Co., NC; bondsman, Noah Cude) James Lloyd.

  • Male born 1810 to 1815: (?) William Allred (2 Jun 1813-1 Feb 1897) married (1) Nancy Bolling, 26 Sep 1832 in Guilford with William E. Cude, bondsman; (2) 7 Mar 1848, Margaret Hanner Weatherly (1825-1903). They are buried at Moriah UMC in Guilford County. Three sons under 5 and one aged 5 to 10 by 1840 (p. 266). Lived only a few doors away from Jesse Alexander. Buried Mt. Moriah UMC. Among his older children, not living with him in 1850 may have been Polly Ann Allred (b. 1842) m. (1) --- Hicks, (2) 1868, John Walden. She was living with John Bolin (b. c. 1793) in 1850, likely her grandfather. Another child may have been Robert Allred (b. 1835) living with the Causey family in 1850. Known children include: Dobson Allred (b. 1837); Sarah Allred (b. c. 1838); Charlotte Allred (b. 1841); John M. Allred (b. 1846); Franklin Allred (b. 1850); Roxana L. Allred (b. c. 1859) m. Washington D. Ingold; Jesse Pegram Allred (b. c. 1861) m. Mary J. Causey; Margaret Martitia Allred (b. c. 1863) m. John E. Kirkman; Alson L. Allred (b. c. 1866); and Eddie M. Allred (b. c. 1868).

  • Male born 1815 to 1820. NFI

  • Female born 1815 to 1820. NFI (?) Lucinda Allred 17 Oct 1846 (Guilford Co., NC; bondsman Maben (X) Winters), John Bollin.

  • (3) Miriam Allred. Explicitly linked to John Allred in the 1797 flap over James, Jane and Miriam’s assault on Mary Crabtree at Sandy Creek Meeting House. John Allred (her father) signed her appearance bond in that case. Later, she and Henry Allred (her alleged brother) were summoned in the same assault case involving Jeremiah York and John McCollum (see chronology for father and below under Henry). She may have married an Alldridge.

(4)       Thomas Allred (24 Feb 1781, NC-27 Sep 1860, NC) a bricklayer, according to the 1850 census.[81] Married Margaret Allred (b. 11 May 1778, NC -18 Mar 1855, Wayne Co., IN), likely daughter of James Allred, Sr., above, his first cousin. Margaret and her husband are buried at the King Cemetery in Richmond, IN. Wayne County is just across the border from Preble, Darke and Butler counties in OH.[82] The biography of a grandson “Thomas A. Hoover,” as published in A Standard History of Kosciusko County, Indiana (1919), p. 651, states that subject’s father, “Andrew Hoover… On February 9, 1837…married Miss Mary Allred, a native of Ohio, though married in Wayne County, Indiana, where her parents were pioneers.

She was the daughter of Thomas and Margaret (Allred) Allred, who came from North Carolina to Ohio about 1808, and her father subsequently served in the War of 1812.” This statement is important, because it shows that Thomas Allred was originally settled in Ohio and that his wife’s maiden name was also Allred. I think it very possible that the connection to James Allred's family is through Margaret and not Thomas.[83] Thomas did sell property in Butler Co., OH from Wayne Co., IN, where he later settled permanently.[84] He claimed service in the Ohio Militia during the War of 1812 under Capt. John Fleming and Major Lanier. He made an application under warrant number 55-80-8769, although it was rejected.

Children (per Thomas's estate settlement[85]) were:

William Allred (b. 11 Sep 1806 d. 1839, Wayne Co., IN)[86] m. 5 Mar 1829 (Wayne Co., IN) Rebecca Spivy;
Zebedee Allred (15 Nov 1808--2 Dec 1827);
Lilly Ann Allred (22 Aug 1821--9 Aug 1873) m. Landon R. Thomas;
Louvisa Allred (18 Oct 1813--2 Mar 1848) m. James E. Bryant (1809-1871) (grandchildren, James Bryant, Robert Bryant, John Bryant, Frances Bryant, Lucady Bryant m. Joseph Lacy);
Mary or Polly Allred (b. 19 Jan 1818) m. 9 Feb 1837, Alfred Hoover;
Miriam Allred (b. 22 Nov 1816) m. John Duke;
Lusada Allred (b. 6 Jan 1811 d. 3 Dec 1902, Sherrad, IL) m. 5 Mar 1829 (Wayne Co., IN) John Spivey.

 

(5)     (?) John Allred (c. 1784 NC -- 31 Aug 1854, Greene Co., IL) m. Nancy Larr[87] (b. c. 1800, NC). This John Allred is buried at Martin's Prairie Cemetery, Roodhouse, Greene Co., IL. His tombstone states that he was born in North Carolina. Curiously, I have yet to locate John himself in any census record, but there is evidence of his family's presence in that part of Illinois from the 1840s. The known children have been cobbled together from their burials at Martin's Prairie and Pinetree Cemeteries in Greene Co. At various times, they were resident in nearby Scott, Macoupin and Morgan Counties as well.

John married rather late in life, given the ages of his wife and children. He was somewhere in Tennessee most likely when he married her and the older children were born there. Probably, there were additional children to the ones listed here:

John Allred (b. c. 1817, TN -- aft 1860; stone is present at Martin's Prairie, but shattered and mostly illegible) m. Annie (1 Oct 1823, MO -- 24 Nov 1870);

Margaret Allred (9 Jan 1819, Tennessee--5 May 1892, Morgan Co., IL; buried Fernwood Cem., Greene Co.) m. Lewis Martin (1812-1884);

Hiram M. Allred (10 Mar 1826, Tennessee--18 Jan 1918, Greene Co., IL; buried Martin's Prairie) m. 26 Feb 1848 (Scott Co., IL) Margaret Tetterton;

Francis Marion Allred (b. c. 1835, TN; buried Martin's Prairie) m. Nancy;

James Calvin Allred (b. c. 1837, Tennessee-- 28 Oct 1913, buried Pine Tree Cemetery) m. 4 Oct 1855, Elizabeth E. Buchanan.

Interestingly, my father has a very close atDNA match to a descendant of this John through his son Hiram. John's descendant is also a match to a descendant of Isaac Allread of this list who matches my father.

(6)     Isaac Allred (c. 1793--28 Sep 1834, buried along Big Miami River, Hamilton Co., OH) m. 26 Sep 1815 (Butler Co., OH), Lucy Emerson (1797--25 Jul 1862, Butler Co., OH), daughter of Kendall and Elizabeth Pratt Emerson. Isaac is connected to Eve Allred because they married into the same Emerson family. Isaac reportedly served in the War of 1812 under Captains John Fleming and Nesbit, and Major Rice of the Ohio volunteers and filed an application for a bounty land warrant (Warrant 55-160-37280) which was rejected. [88] Isaac is recorded as living in Wayne Co., IN in 1820.[89]  By 1830, he was in Darke Co., OH.[90] Children:

Stephen William Allred (b. 12 Jan 1817 d. 27 Oct 1892, Darke Co. OH) m. 13 Jul 1843 (Butler Co., OH), Martha A. Vanliew (1822-1898);

Frederick Allred (25 Jan 1819--11 Mar 1893, Darke Co., OH) m. Nancy Cates (1824-1890);

Elizabeth Allred (c. 1820-aft 1880, Butler Co., OH) m. 5 Apr 1840 (Butler Co., OH), George Yeargan;

Isaac C. Allred (20 Jul 1826, d. 2 Jul 1876)[91] m. 11 Oct 1855 (Darke Co., OH) Christina Howk (1836-1867);

Elzina Allred (1828-1910) m. 9 Nov 1848 (Butler Co., OH), William Morton;

Emerson Allred (b. 1833 d. 31 Jan 1862) m. 14 Aug 1857 (Darke Co., OH), Esther Brown.

(7)     Henry W. Allred (b. c. 1796, NC--aft. 1850, Wayne Co., IN) m. (1) Guilford Co., NC, 15 Sep 1817, Abigail or Abby Johnson (John Howell, bondsman); m. (2) 11 Jun 1836 (Marion Co., IN) Elizabeth "Betsy" A. Miller (b. c. 1805, OH). A shoemaker who lived in Darke Co., OH as early as 1820 (p. 142)[92] and subsequently moved to Wayne Co., IN, he may be referenced as a "grandfather" in the family history of James I. Allred, published in The Biographical History of Darke Co., OH (1900), pp. 382-383. A Henry Allred, almost certainly this same individual, was summoned in Randolph County, NC to give testimony along with Miriam Alldridge[93] in a case Jeremiah York v. John McCollum, miller, for assault, 1 May 1818. A Henry Allred (along with Tobias York and James Cox) was also listed to be summoned as a witness in an assault case between John Allred and Crabtree York in May of 1818 (same series, Box 15, third file marked 1820). It is interesting that his first marriage took place in Guilford County, NC, where his supposed brother James was then living. In Indiana, he was most definitely associated with Thomas Allred (wife Margaret Allred) of this list.[94] Children[95]:

Ann Allred (b. c. 1836),

William Allred (b. c. 1838),

Hannah Allred (b. c. 1841),

John Allred (b. c. 1845).  

  1. atDNA Evidence

            I end with a brief discussion of how genetic information may inform the questions explored in this piece. When I first began to study my Allred ancestors, I came into contact with a cousin, descended from William Manly Routh and Martha J. Allred Routh, who had several photographs of our common forebears. They had been kept over the decades in Martha's old Bible. Martha was a daughter of Jonathan Allred and granddaughter of Joseph and Rachel Allred. Folks had always pointed out how much my father and I resembled one another and also my great-uncle William Mitchell Cates, Jr. who was a grandson of Martha Allred Routh. I noticed a lot of Allred tendencies in our family's appearance, particularly the long face, protruding chin, prominent ears, and deep-set eyes. They are evident, for example, in the picture of my great-great aunt Virginia Routh Underwood, also from that collection of photos.

There was also a photo of Jonathan Allred and his wife Nancy Allen and one of a family group, likely to be the Jonathan Allred children. I was not surprised, then, to learn from my father's atDNA results at FamilyTreeDNA and Ancestry.com, that he had many Allred genetic cousins. A few of them descend from the sisters of Joseph Allred in Tennessee: Elizabeth Allred Horner, Barbara Allred York, and Susannah Allred Geren. That was expected.

 

But there was a second group of matches as well, and they were interlocking or triangulated. That is to say, they not only matched my father but also one another, or at least had matches in common with one another. To date, I have found eight of them on Ancestry and two on FamilyTreeDNA. They all descend from Allreds who affiliated with the Mormon Church and later moved to Utah. All claim descent from William Allred and Elizabeth Thrasher, and thence to Thomas Allred, Sr. (d. 1810). Until now, I didn't know how to explain them. The connection to Thomas Allred through John Allred (d. 1792) would not be very strong. After all, Thomas Allred was John's maternal uncle. John's father was apparently Samuel Finley. Yet these matches were every bit as prominent as the ones through John Allred's (d. 1792) sisters.[96] There is yet another, so far unexplained, set of Allred atDNA matches. I have found six or seven individuals with specified connections to Allreds through AncestryDNA, and a much larger number within the same circle who have not posted family trees or developed their trees sufficiently to show a lineage back to an Allred forebear. Once again, they are all triangulated, that is, they match one another or have a significant number of other matches-in-common, but there is no triangulation with the other clusters I have mentioned above.

At least six of them go back either to Rachel Allred Looper (1795-1874) of Overton Co., TN, or to John Allred (b. c. 1772; m. 1806 in Grainger Co., TN, Phoebe Thompson) of Overton Co., TN and Newton Co., AR. A fifth match who fits into this cluster genetically descends from Ruhama Clark Allred (1806-1865) m. William Buck Phillips. She is generally said to be a daughter of Francis Allred who married Rachel, also of Overton Co. This Francis was almost certainly a son of Theophilus Allred, named for his maternal grandfather, Francis Cheney. The current standard history of the Allred clan places these individuals under Solomon Allred (d. 1782) of Richmond Co., NC. The John who married Phebe Thompson is generally identified as his son. However, as I have shown, there was a much older John Allred associated with Solomon's first years in Anson (later Richmond) Co., NC, who I believe to be his son. John who married Phebe Thompson must be a grandson, if he is descended from Solomon, which I think very likely.

Various members of my Allred family:

Martha Jane Allred Routh, daughter of Jonathan (author’s great-great grandmother);

probable group portrait of children of Jonathan and Nancy Allred;

John C. Chisholm, son of Mary Allred Chisholm (note resemblance to his uncle Jonathan Allred).

Virginia Routh Underwood (author’s great-great aunt);

 

Ednora Routh Cates (author’s great-grandmother);

William Mitchell Cates, Jr. (author’s great-uncle).

 

I have yet to figure out what is going on with this group of matches. Do I actually have a closer connection through Rachel with the Solomon group? Or are the matches explicable merely through the more distant relationship between Thomas and his brother Solomon, or between John (d. 1792) and his uncle Solomon? Or is it possible that the wife of James Allred, Sr. (Elizabeth?) was a daughter of Solomon Allred, Sr.? The name Rachel, for example, is deeply associated with the descendants of Solomon. Such an early cousin marriage would also explain James’s move toward Richmond County around 1800, where Solomon’s family was then living.

Furthermore, a sequence of cousin marriages (rather than just one) would go far toward explaining the issues with physical and mental health in the Joseph Allred clan. Only time and further research (particularly genetic research, given the dearth of Overton County records) will sort out these questions.

Larry W. Cates larry.cates@highpointnc.gov 24 Aug 2018

[1] I will not repeat all the references I made in the original piece. I direct interested parties to Larry W. Cates, "'No Leaf Unturned': Clues to the Identity of an Allred Bride," Journal of the Randolph County Genealogical Society (hereafter referred to as RCGSJ) Vol. 26, No. 3 (Fall, 2002), 2-15.

[2] The will wasn't probated until May 1810, suggesting Thomas died in that year.

[3] Dawnell H. Griffin, From England to America: Our Allred Family (2015), 220. Rachel Brown joined her husband in a deed dated 7 Aug 1804 in Franklin Co (Franklin Co., GA Deed Book OOO/81). His next deed, dated 1 May 1805, does not mention Rachel but was witnessed by John Allred (Book OOO/92). Prior to this, William Allred had witnessed a deed by which Brown acquired land in 1802 (Book OOO/48). Dawnell also states that Robert Brown, Rachel's husband, was mentioned in Franklin Co., GA tax lists as late as 1818 in Capt. Wofford's District. If this is the correct Robert Brown, there is no way his widow Rachel could have married her cousin Joseph in time to be the mother of any of his children. In fact, given the ages of Brown's children, she would have been too aged to give birth to any of Joseph's children after 1809.

[4] One notable example is Richard Hayes Phillips in his "Allred Family History" found at http://web.northnet.org/minstrel/allred.01.htm .

[5] Mr. Phillips claims that there is no explicit evidence that any of Joseph Allred's children were born between 1801 and 1807, suggesting the gap might represent a change in wives, the second being Rachel. In fact, Mr. Phillips fails to address the presence of four females and two males under ten years of age in Joseph's household in 1810. It seems highly unlikely that all six of these children were either born before 1801 or after 1807. He completely discounts Balaam Allred's birthdate of 20 Jun 1803, claiming that his original tombstone does not give this date of birth. It is true that Balaam's 1850 census entry gives his age as 43, but the original tombstone most definitely did place his birth earlier in the decade. The newer marker set up by the Allred Family Organization follows earlier readings of the original stone. In 1986, the original marker was read as stating b. 20 Jun 1803, d. 2 Oct 1857, aged 54y. 3 m. 12d. The age at death, which was read from the original inscription along with the date of birth, is precisely correct for the birthdate. See RCGSJ vol. 10, no. 1 (Winter, 1986), 41. I believe the 1850 census taker may have mistaken his own handwriting of perhaps "58" for "53" when making a fair copy from his field copy.

[6] The obituary is taken from 16 Jan 1860 edition of the Fayetteville (N.C.) Observer and states, "She bore her afflictions with great patience."

[7] John's mother was Solomon’s sister, but his father we now know was Samuel Findley of Cecil Co., MD.

[8] Deed from Jonathan Allred of Barnwell Dist, SC to Stephen Williams of Richmond Co., NC (8 Mar 1809) Richmond County, N.C. Deed Book L, p. 219.

[9] Griffin, 141. Robert Allison died in 1816 in Roane Co., TN. I am not sure what evidence there is to show that Allison even had a daughter named Rachel.

[10] Deed, James Allred to Jabez York (11 Apr 1801), Randolph Co., NC Deed Book 9, p. 366.

[11] "Randolph County Tax Lists: 1799," in RCGSJ Vol. I, No. 2 (Fall/Winter 1977), 16.

[12] Deed, Moses Grantham to James Allred (19 May 1801), Richmond Co., NC Deed Book F, p. 231. [13] Deed, James Allred to James Bostick (10 Dec 1804), Richmond Co., NC Deed Book H, p. 16.

[14] See A. Bruce Pruitt, Land Warrants and Surveys, Montgomery Co., NC, 1778-1833 (2006), entries 1746, 1880.

[15] Deed, Thomas and Elizabeth Allred to James Allred (1 Sep 1788), Randolph Co., NC Deed Book 4, p. 15.

[16] "Randolph County Tax Lists: 1799," in RCGSJ Vol. I, No. 2 (Fall/Winter 1977), 16.

[17] "Selections From the Hinds Papers," Journal of the Randolph County Genealogical Society (hereafter RCGSJ) Vol. 31, No. 3 (Fall, 2007), 22.

[18] "Randolph County's First Tax List," RCGSJ Vol. 24, No. 1 (Spring 2000), 18.

[19] The signatures discussed here are represented as illustrations in this article. They were taken from North Carolina Land Records database at Ancestry.com. I am also indebted to A. Bruce Pruitt's Abstracts of Land Warrants: Randolph County, NC 1778-1948 (2001), entries 413, 1625.

[20] See appearance bond (25 Apr 1797) of Eli Allred in the case State v. Eli Allred, Hillsborough District Superior Court, Criminal Action Papers, DSCR 204.326.12 (fourth folder marked 1797) at NC State Achives, Raleigh, NC.

[21] See Pruitt, Abstracts of Land Warrants, Randolph County, NC, entry 1865. This Thomas Allred sold his grant adjoining John Jones, Spoon, and James Allred to Isaac Hobson, 22 Sep 1810, with Charles Duncan and Tobias York, witnesses. We know he cannot be Thomas, Sr., for the latter died between 8 Nov 1809 (the date of his will) and May 1810 (when his will was proven). The 1803 Tax List of Randolph County identifies him as Thomas Allred of Elias and assigns him the 100 acres he acquired in 1801.  A different Thomas Allred in this same neighborhood sold 77 acres to Joshua Hobson, for $175, adjacent Brower and Robert Fields (witnesses, William York, Allen Herbert, and Adam Brower) on 24 Dec 1810 (Randolph Co., NC Deed Book 12:36). Much of this was land he had previously purchased from John Allred, 14 Mar 1803, 65 1/2 acres on Sandy Creek adj. Robert Field and Adam Brower (witness Adam Brower). This Thomas purchased the  of the tract he sold to Joshua Hobson, 11 1/2 acres on Sandy Creek, from Adam Brower 7 Nov 1810 (Deed Book 12:27, witnesses James Cude, W. Ward, David Brower). The second Thomas is also identified in the 1803 tax list of Randolph County (Capt. Duncan's district) declaring 67 acres as Thomas Allred (of John).

[22] The sale was conducted by the administrator, H. York. Rachel, Joseph and Eli were the only persons named Allred who purchased at the sale.

[23] Taken from Randolph County Criminal Action papers, C.R. 081.326.28, first file marked 1835.

[24] The list references a younger unpropertied male named "James Allred of John. See "Randolph County Tax Lists: 1799," in RCGSJ Vol. I, No. 2 (Fall/Winter 1977), 16.

[25] See RCGSJ Vol. 24, No. 3 (Fall, 2000), 46.

[26] "1803 Tax List, Randolph Co., NC," RCGSJ Vol. XI, No. 1 (Winter 1987), 6. The acreage is probably a clerical error.

[27] See Pruitt, Abstracts of Land Warrants, Randolph County, NC, entries 2117, 2219.

[28] Deed, James Allred to Isaac Hobson (16 Mar 1811), Randolph Co., NC Deed Book 12, p. 12.

[29] Deed, James Allred to John Hayes (22 Jan 1817), Randolph Co., NC Deed Book 14, p. 25.

[30] Deed, Levi Allred to James Allred (28 Oct 1815), Randolph Co., NC Deed Book 13, p. 96.

[31] Deed, Zebulon Causey to Enoch Davis (3 Mar 1813), Guilford Co., NC Deed Book 11, p. 284.

[32] Judy Bryant Millikan, Guilford County, North Carolina Records of the Court of Pleas & Quarter Sessions: 1811-1815, p. 91.

[33] Guilford County Road Docket, Feb 1824-Nov 1827, The Guilford Genealogist Vol. 44, No. 2 (Summer-Fall, 2017), 37.

[34] See Section IV of this article for a deeper exploration of that family.

[35] See Griffin, From England to America, 221.

[36] Griffin, From England to America, 250-251..

[37] I think he probably means "great-uncle" in this case.

[38] For a lengthy explication of this set of letters, see Dawnell H. Griffin, "Solomon and Mary Aldridge Allred," in Allred Family Newsletter No. 98 (Spring 2014), 1-6.

[39] See Richmond Co., NC Deed Books TT/333 (1888) and BBB/532 (1893).

[40] That is, aside from the will of James Armstrong (1849) in Richmond Co., NC, which gives the heirs of John Allred by Millie Armstrong his sister.

[41] John Allred received two or three land grants between 1773 and 1775 on Buffalo and Mountain Creeks in old Anson County. The shucks are empty of their original documents, unfortunately. However, in 1774, this same John witnessed a deed from Stephen Touchstone and wife Ann to Solomon Allred for 100 acres on Mountain Creek in what was then Anson County (Anson Co., NC Deed Book K, p. 249). In 1775, he witnessed another deed, this time in company with Solomon Allred for another tract on Mountain Creek (Anson County Deed Book K, p. 332). In 1788, in Richmond County, an execution was issued in favor of Phineas and Jonathan Allred for a debt owed them by John Allred on one of the 300-acre tracts. Jonathan Allred purchased this tract at the court house door (Richmond Co., NC Deed Book B/456). Given the early date, John Allred must have been one of the oldest children of Solomon and Mary Allred. There was a John Allred household in Knox Co., TN in 1830 in which the oldest male was aged 80 to 90 years of age (p. 352). He lived next to William York. William Allred was assigned in July of 1775 by Anson County Court to work on a road overseen by Jonathan Llewellyn in Anson. This is the only time his name has been found. May Wilson McBee, Anson County, North Carolina, Abstracts of Early Records (1950), 104.

[42] Pruitt, Abstracts of Land Warrants & Surveys, Montgomery Co., NC, entry 1693.

[43] John Gillis's death certificate identifies the maiden name of his mother.

[44] These original tax lists are housed at the North Carolina State Archives along with Montgomery County Road Orders, 1843-1868 (C. R. 067.925.1). Assignments were made at April sessions 1844, 1845, 1846.

[45] See Montgomery Co., NC Deed Bk 17/115.

[46] See Montgomery Co., NC Deed Bk 17/477, 496.

[47] Of particular help with this family is Linda Allred Cooper's article, "Dr. Calvin J. Allred of Ocala, Florida," Allred Family Newsletter No. 108 (Fall 2016), 5-9.

[48] Notice to creditors found in the 10 May 1855 edition of the Fayetteville Weekly Observer, p. 3.

[49] See A Portrait and Biographical History of Hendricks County (Chicago: A. W. Bowen & Co., 1895), 1021-1022. The full name of Hiram’s father James Alfred Raines suggests to me that his name might actually have been James Allred Raines, in honor of his maternal grandfather.

[50] In fact, both Thomas and Isaac Allred were resident in Wayne Co., IN in 1820. Henry Allred resided there by 1822, when he bought land from Thomas. The common residence of these three heads of household around this time links them closely together. I think they were brothers and children of John Allred and wife Ruth. John was the son of Thomas Allred, Sr. and brother to James, Sr., father of Margaret. See Section IV.

[51] I believe this Thomas was a son of John Allred, brother of James, Sr. and son of Thomas, Sr. See Section IV. It is important to note that some Ohio descendants believe that this Thomas was Elias’s son and that Margaret was actually an Aldridge, rather than an Allred, but that could be because they are confusing her with the Thomas Allred who accompanied the Nathan Aldridge family to east Tennessee. His wife was Margaret Aldridge, daughter of Nathan. Elias’s son Thomas was probably the individual born about 1779 who settled in Chatham Co., NC, near Mudlick P.O. He was a veteran of the War of 1812 and a brick mason. His wife was Sally York, whom he married about 15 Apr 1804, according to his pension file. He committed suicide 11 Jan 1860. See “Suicide,” Fayetteville Weekly Observer (23 Jan 1860), 2.

[52] This was 33 3/4 acres, part of section 5, township 5, range 2 which he and Margaret sold 15 Dec 1827 (Butler Co., OH Deed Book N, p. 547.) The witnesses were Elijah Lacy and Samuel Butler.

[53] It was filed in the complete record of estates for Wayne County at January Term 1863, beginning p. 587 of that volume. Deceased's land was in the town of Richmond. Zebedee was not mentioned but is buried in the same cemetery with his father and mother and predeceased them.

[54] This is almost certainly the father of two young Allred men, Levi (b. 20 Sep 1829) and Thomas Allred (b. c. 1833), whose mother remarried. The story is that they did not get along with their stepfather and ran away from home. Thomas and Levi both ended up in Winona and Mower counties, MN, though Levi spent a brief time in the Dakota Territory. Levi is buried at Warren Township Cemetery in Winona Co.

[55] See Bounty Land Warrants Application Index at Fold3.com.

[56] Ellen T. Berry and David A. Berry, Early Ohio Settlers: Purchasers of Land in Southwestern Ohio, 1800-1840 (1986), 5.

[57] Possibly, another child might have been Andrew Jackson Allred of Tazewell and later Warren Co., IL. He was born about 1813 in Ohio and married Hannah Gibson, 15 May 1836 in Crawfordsville, Montgomery Co., IN. James lived in Marion Co., just a few miles east of Crawfordsville. Their marriage is mentioned in the Crawfordsville, IN newspaper.

[58] No definitive list of his heirs, has been found, though I have searched through the probate records of Marion County and the deeds. There is clearly a big gap in the list we have. His census record in 1820 (Summers Twp, Preble Co., OH, p. 98) shows one male under 10, one male 10 to 15, 3 females under 10 and two females 10 to 16. His 1830 census record (Summers Twp, Preble Co., OH, p. 343) shows one male under 5, one male 5 to 10, one male 15 to 20, two females 5 to 10, one female 10 to 15, one female 15 to 20. He is described as aged 40 to 50 and his wife, 30 to 40. It is interesting that Hiram and Darius (Arris?) Lunsford appear in the 1820 census very close to James Allred. This is a name I readily recognize from Richmond Co., NC. There was also an Elias Lunsford resident in Randolph County in 1800.

[59] Some of the census records for William and John Allred do not quite add up with the lists of children that so obviously belong to them. It is as though in different years, different children were living in their uncle’s families –in fact, as if their families were interchangeable. They did live adjacent to one another and own land in common. A deed in Montgomery proves they were brothers. It is difficult to know precisely how to separate the two families. It was hoped that the estate records of Duncan M. Allred in Ocala, FL would reveal his natural heirs, since he was childless, but so far, that evidence has not been forthcoming. Such a list of heirs would separate the families once and for all and define John’s family absolutely.

[60] William McKindred “Mac” Allred was a very successful early grocer in High Point. He and his brother N.E. opened the first cash grocery store in the city and kept it in operation until 1919. Before coming to High Point, it is said that he sold his house in Davidson County on the Thomasville road in 1890 for 7,000 pairs of horseshoes to Samuel L. Swaim. The early 1890s were tough economic times. See “A Lucky Shanty,” The Charlotte (N.C.) Democrat (20 May 1892), 2 and “W. M. Allred is taken by illness,” High Point Enterprise (29 Jul 1942), 10.

[61] See the statements of these two witnesses along with many others in James Armstrong's estate file, Richmond Co, N.C. Partially abstracted by Myrtle Bridges in Estate Records, Richmond County, North Carolina, 1772-1933. Vol. 1: Adams through Harbert (2001), 14-19. They were taken in the case Richard Jones et al v. Elizabeth Armstrong et al. I also examined the minute docket of Richmond County Superior Court for the years during which the case was heard from 1853 to 1856 (several notations appeared) and looked through corresponding civil action papers (which contained no additional relevant documents).

[62] See Montgomery Co., NC Deed Book 32, p. 444.

[63] The will is given in Myrtle N. Bridges, Final Words: 772 Original Wills by Richmond County, North Carolina Testators, 1779-1915 (2005), 5-6. The wills specifies the children of John Allred (b. 1795), son of Joseph as Isaac, Rachel, Elizabeth, and Martha Little Allred. These seem to be the only surviving children of John and Amelia (Armstrong) Allred.

[64] The John Allred family actually lived next door to James Armstrong and wife per the 1850 census of Richmond Co., NC.

[65] Eve Allred's birthplace cannot be directly observed in the census, since she died in 1847, but several of her children, including John Pratt Emerson, in the 1880 census, identify their mother's place of birth as North Carolina.

[66] It has been claimed in several places, notably Griffin, 227-228, that this John Allred was father to Thomas, William, Miriam, Ruth, and Jesse Lane Allred (1799-1880; married Margaret Redmond). The tombstone of Jesse Lane Allred at the Pioneer Cemetery, Centralia, Lewis Co., WA gives his birthdate as 13 Nov 1799 and states explicitly that he was born in Logan County, Kentucky. Though there was a John Allred in the 1810 census of Logan County who might well be Jesse’s father, it is not possible he could have been the John Allred, son of Thomas, who married Ruth. That person, as the chronology shows, was still residing in Randolph County in the first decade of the nineteenth century.

[67] One of the heirs of George Field (d. 1845) in Guilford County, NC, was a surviving sister, Keziah Allred, wife of William. William Allred’s wife is also noted as having performed washing for her infirm brother many years prior in his guardian accounts. Since Keziah is not discernable elsewhere, and given William Allred Sr.’s close association with this family, it seems likely to me that this William Allred and his wife are meant. If so, then William’s son John married his first cousin, not an unlikely eventuality in that time.

[68] These records taken from the Guilford County (N.C.) Road Docket, 1824-1827, CR 046.925.1 at the North Carolina State Archives. It has recently been transcribed and indexed and published by the Guilford County Genealogical Society.

[69] The name “Clemmons” doubtless derives from Clemmons Wood, who married Anne Field, daughter of Robert Field, Sr. (d. 1820). The names of Robert Field, Sr.’s children and many of his grandchildren are revealed in the Guilford County estate file of his lunatic son, George Field (1845), who had no surviving issue, and whose heirs were all collateral relations. There are also clues in Robert’s own extensive estate file in Randolph County (1820).

[70] Though not quite old enough, this could be the Jane Allred who appears living alone in the 1850 census of North Division of Randolph Co. (p. 234), aged 63 next to Jacob and Nelly Bowman. Her age could be a clerical error or an instance of underreporting. I suspect there may have been a relationship between Jane Allred and Capt. Enoch Davis (1740, Philadelphia Co., PA-1837, Washington Co., IN). Enoch lived in Guilford County until 1831 and James and Jane Allred witnessed one of his land transactions in 1813. Furthermore, James and Jane appear to have had a grandson named Enoch Davis Allred.

[71] The list references a younger unpropertied male named "James Allred of John.” See "Randolph County Tax Lists: 1799," in RCGSJ Vol. I, No. 2 (Fall/Winter 1977), 16.

[72] See RCGSJ Vol. 24, No. 3 (Fall, 2000), 46.

[73] "1803 Tax List, Randolph Co., NC," RCGSJ Vol. XI, No. 1 (Winter 1987), 6. The acreage is probably a clerical error.

[74] See Pruitt, Abstracts of Land Warrants, Randolph County, NC, entries 2117, 2219.

[75] Deed, James Allred to Isaac Hobson (16 Mar 1811), Randolph Co., NC Deed Book 12, p. 12.

[76] Deed, James Allred to John Hayes (22 Jan 1817), Randolph Co., NC Deed Book 14, p. 25.

[77] Deed, Levi Allred to James Allred (28 Oct 1815), Randolph Co., NC Deed Book 13, p. 96.

[78] Deed, Zebulon Causey to Enoch Davis (3 Mar 1813), Guilford Co., NC Deed Book 11, p. 284.

[79] Judy Bryant Millikan, Guilford County, North Carolina Records of the Court of Pleas & Quarter Sessions: 1811-1815, p. 91.

[80] Guilford County Road Docket, Feb 1824-Nov 1827, The Guilford Genealogist Vol. 44, No. 2 (Summer-Fall, 2017), 37.

[81] I believe this Thomas Allred lived in the area of Solomon’s and Sandy Creek when in North Carolina. He sold 77 acres to Joshua Hobson, for $175, adjacent Brower and Robert Fields (witnesses, William York, Allen Herbert, and Adam Brower) on 24 Dec 1810 (Randolph Co., NC Deed Book 12:36). Much of this was land he had previously purchased from John Allred, 14 Mar 1803, 65 1/2 acres on Sandy Creek adj. Robert Field and Adam Brower (witness Adam Brower). Of the tract he later sold to Joshua Hobson, 11 1/2 acres on Sandy Creek, was purchased from Adam Brower 7 Nov 1810 (Deed Book 12:27, witnesses James Cude, W. Ward, David Brower). This Thomas is explicitly identified in the 1803 tax list of Randolph County (Capt. Duncan's district) as “Thomas Allred of John.” He declared 67 acres that year (very close to the 63 ½ purchased in 1803). He disappears after 1810 from Randolph County, just in time reappear in Ohio and serve in the War of 1812.

[82] In fact, both Thomas and Isaac Allred were resident in Wayne Co., IN in 1820. Henry Allred resided there by 1822, when he bought land from Thomas. Thus, the Midwestern men assigned to this family, apart from John Allred (Jr.) are unified by their common residence in Wayne County, IN about this time.

[83] It is important to note that some Ohio descendants believe that this Thomas was Elias’s son and that Margaret was actually an Aldridge, rather than an Allred, but that could be because they are confusing her with the Thomas Allred who accompanied the Nathan Aldridge family to Sullivan County, Tennessee. The latter Thomas’s wife was Margaret Aldridge, daughter of Nathan. I can find no point through which this Margaret Aldridge would fit into the broader Randolph County connection of that name. However, that seems unlikely to me. Elias Allred’s son Thomas is almost certainly the individual who lived in Chatham Co., NC and committed suicide in the 1860.

[84] This was 33 3/4 acres, part of section 5, township 5, range 2 which he and Margaret sold 15 Dec 1827 (Butler Co., OH Deed Book N, p. 547.) The witnesses were Elijah Lacy and Samuel Butler.

[85] It was filed in the complete record of estates for Wayne County at January Term 1863, beginning p. 587 of that volume. Deceased's land was in the town of Richmond. Zebedee was not mentioned but is buried in the same cemetery with his father and mother and predeceased them.

[86] This is almost certainly the father of two young Allred men, Levi (b. 20 Sep 1829) and Thomas Allred (b. c. 1833), whose mother remarried. The story is that they did not get along with their stepfather and ran away from home. Thomas and Levi both ended up in Winona and Mower counties, MN, though Levi spent a brief time in the Dakota Territory. Levi is buried at Warren Township Cemetery in Winona Co.

[87] So far, I have found no evidence to substantiate that this was her maiden name.

[88] The "S.W. Allread" entry in Beers's History of Darke County Ohio (1880), p. 727 states subject's father Isaac was born in Maryland but came to North Carolina with his parents and remained there until he was 18, whereupon he moved to Butler Co., served in the War of 1812, and had a family of three sons and four daughters. Most of this information, except the birthplace in Maryland conforms to what we know.

[89] In that year, he is shown as having two males under 10 years of age and one female under 10 in his household (p. 178).

[90] In 1830, Isaac's census entry shows one male under 5, two males 10 to 15, one female under 5, two females 5 to 10. Both he and his wife are 30 to 40 years of age (p. 28). These two census entries accord relatively well with the list of children generally ascribed to him.

[91] The "James I. Allred" entry in The Biographical History of Darke Co., OH (1900), p. 382-383 identifies its subject's father as Isaac C. Allred (1826-1876). It names his grandfather Henry Allred and calls him one of the early settlers of Butler County where he located about 1820. I have found nothing specific to corroborate the claim. Most genealogists seem to place Isaac C. Allred with Isaac, Sr, but it could be that he does belong with Henry Allred of this list instead. James I. Allred's great-grandfather is pegged by the biography as William Allred, a hero of the Revolution who fought with General Wayne -- seemingly connecting this family with a key figure in the early history of Ohio, "Mad" Anthony Wayne. This seems ludicrous.

[92] Randolph County (N.C.) Criminal Action Papers, Box C. R. 81.326.13 (1818-1819), first file marked 1818; same series, Box 15, third file marked 1820. Given John Allred (of Thomas’s) intimate connection and sometime conflict with the Yorks, Henry’s status as John’s son seems more and more assured.

[93] Any chance this was John Allred’s (of Thomas, Sr.’s) daughter Miriam either actually married to an Aldridge or displaying a corrupted form of her surname?

[94] Thomas and Margaret Allred, then living in Wayne Co., sold Henry W. Allred 20 acres in fractional section 13 of Township 14, in Range 2 West, Wayne Co., IN, 8 Oct 1822 (Wayne Co., IN Deed Book E, 294). Henry and his first wife Abigail sold the same tract almost immediately to Joseph Ratcliff, Jr., 8 Oct 1822 (Wayne Co., IN Deed Book E, 296).

[95] There were certainly older children by the first wife who have yet to be identified. There were two sons born prior to 1820.

[96] I should note here that this particular cluster of matches triangulate with a set of descendants of the Tobias Long family of Randolph County, NC, who also match one another. I have no known Long ancestors. So these strong matches suggest to me that perhaps Thomas Allred, Sr.’s first wife may have been a Long. It is understood now that his wife at his death, Elizabeth, was almost certainly a Julian widow and not a Twiggs. She was not the mother of his older children, such as James, Sr., who may have been among the very oldest. Though I doubt that Tobias Long himself was the father of Thomas Allred’s wife, it may be that he had a sister who married Thomas or that one of Tobias’s nieces, daughter of his brother John Long of Cecil Co., MD, married Thomas Allred, Sr. as his first wife. John did have a daughter named Rachel, for example.

Joseph Allred's Lineage:  Joseph, John, Unnamed woman and Samuel Finley, Solomon born 1680 England

Original Report:  No Leaf Unturned
written 2002